Probably the most recognizable of these is the flehmen
During the experiment, examinations were performed weekly, including general and physical examinations, palpation of the testicles, a behavioral examination to observe the presence of libido by observation of the courtship behavior and Flehmen
reflex when placed next to a doe in heat, physical ability to perform a natural mount and spermogram.
His early research was on various southern African species, and his publications were about shrew captive behaviour, activity patterns, reproduction and postnatal development, fostering, agonistic behaviour, moulting, (lack of) echolocation, "flehmen
" (the catnip response), and predation upon them by carnivores and owls.
Anyway, to answer the question: A bighorn sheep that looks like it's smiling probably isn't saying "cheese" but sniffing pheromones and other scents in what's called a flehmen
response, said Harris.
One such facial expression is flehmen
, characterized by movement around the mouth, jaw and nose, and thought to be functional in monitoring estrous cycles of females from their urine, although it may also serve other communicative functions (Stahlbaum and Houpt, 1989; Weeks et al., 2002).
Male individuals of most domestic animals commonly use the flehmen
response as an olfactory mechanism for identifying the reproductive state of females of the same species based on transferring pheromones in the female's urine or genitalia into the vomeronasal organ (VNO).
First documentation of flehmen
in a common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius).
The behavior, called the flehmen
response, is particular to mammals, such as members of the cat family, horses, cattle and pigs.
A buck in rut will display flehmen
lip curling and will urinate on his forelegs and face.
Furthermore, the response of flehmen
was significant on vocalization in Model D (p less than 0.05) only.
A intensidade da dor pode ser classificada como discreta, moderada e intensa (4, 5), sendo considerada como discreta quando o animal escava o solo, olha constantemente para a regiao abdominal, dobra o labio superior (reflexo de Flehmen
), boceja e range os dentes repetidamente; moderada quando o animal deita e levanta constantemente, escoicea ou morde o abdomen, e intensa quando deita e levanta vigorosamente, assim como quando apresenta sudorese excessiva e automutilacao (4, 6).