It consists of premixed diglycidyl ethers of ortho-substituted-4-hydroxy-phenylflorenes matrix resin with 9,9-bis (aminophenyl) fluorene
The concentrations of the gas-phase PAHs anthracene, acenaphthene, fluorene
, and phenanthrene distinguished the gas phase from urban and rural particulate phases.
Higher concentrations of PAHs were also measured in caged snails with low molecular weight (lmw) hydrocarbons (i.e., naphthalene and fluorene
) always prevailing over high molecular weight (hmw) congeners (i.e., fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b] fluoranthene, benzo [k]fluoranthene).
A previous analysis showed that micromolar concentrations of individual tricyclic PAHs representing the homologous series most abundant in weathered crude oil (fluorene
, dibenzothiophene, and phenanthrene) caused a syndrome of edema and craniofacial and body axis defects after dose-dependent cardiac dysfunction that was first observed at about 36 hpf (Incardona et al.
Likewise, an inhaled PAH exposure could be expected to range from 5.6 to 363 ng/day in Arctic beluga (Table 4), although this exposure would be dominated by lower-molecular-weight PAHs such as fluorene
and phenanthrene (MacDonald et al.
Ratio to IS (anthracene-[d.sub.10]) PAH m/z 1 2 3 Acenaphthylene 152 4.6 5.6 1.6 Fluorene
166 1.4 2.5 0.8 Anthracene 178 7.2 10.2 6.0 Cyclopentaphenanthrene 190 1.7 2.2 1.7 Fluoranthene 202 6.2 6.4 6.7 Acephenanthrylene 202 4.0 4.4 4.3 Pyrene 202 8.0 9.6 8.7 Benzofluorenes 216 1.0 2.0 1.0 Acepyrene 226 7.6 7.2 9.8 Chrysene 228 1.3 1.4 1.2 Benzopyrenes 252 2.0 2.2 2.5 Perylene 252 1.5 1.7 1.6 Benzoperylene/indenopyrene 276 1.2 0.4 1.5 Ratio to specific IS (mg/g soot) PAH 1 2 3 Acenaphthylene Fluorene
Anthracene 14.4 20.4 12.0 Cyclopentaphenanthrene Fluoranthene Acephenanthrylene Pyrene Benzofluorenes Acepyrene Chrysene 1.4 1.5 1.2 Benzopyrenes 1.7 2.0 1.7 Perylene 0.2 0.5 0.4 Benzoperylene/indenopyrene IS, internal standards.
Another dissociation pathway of the protonated molecule yielded an ion at m/z 156 due to loss of methylene fluorene
, ultimately producing an ion at m/z 112 by loss of CO2 to form an AMPA cation (Fig.
Due to their toxicity to humans, the following 17 compounds are most frequently determined: acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(j)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, chrysene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene
, phenanthrene, pyrene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene.
(2004, 2006, 2011) showed that some 3-ring (fluorene
, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene), 4-ring (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene), and 5-ring PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene), and mixtures of PAHs cause severe pericardial and yolk sac edemas, dorsal curvature of the trunk and tail, and growth retardation in the exposed-zebrafish embryo at 48-96 hpf.
The standard curve of PAHs was including naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene
, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b) fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd) pyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene as shown in figure 1.
From seven PAHs analyzed, the fluorene
was found to be present in almost all vegetable samples and was highest in bitter guard that is 144.52+-2.51 ug/kg.
Furthermore, organic compounds were found, such as Diethyl phthalate; Fluorene
; Dibenzofuran; Nitrobenzene; 4-Bromodiphenyl ether; Hexachlorobenzene; Phenanthrene; Carbazole; Di-n- butyl phthalate e Benzyl butyl phthalate .