The probe label of choice is now generally a fluorophore
as opposed to a radioisotope, but sensitivity is still achieved through (optical) signal integration times.
When a fluorophore
is attached to a DNA strand, the resulting emission that signals the presence of such metallic ions serves as a practical molecular biosensor.
Maximum energy transfer or the maximum FRET is dependent on the distance between the donor and the acceptor fluorophore
(closer the probes = maximum energy transfer = Maximum FRET).
Upon Matriptase cleavage, this substrate generates the Rh110 (Rhodamine 110) fluorophore
which has a bright green fluorescence and can be detected at excitation/emission=496 nm/520 nm.
Besides, eight parametric maps of the illuminated skin spot are available: epidermal melanin distribution, dermal melanin distribution, total haemoglobin distribution, bilirubin distribution, erythema index map, fluorescence intensity distribution, map of fluorophore
clusters (derived from the image of photobleaching rates ), and skin blood perfusion map.
We assumed that the use of hydrophilic fluorophores
would result in fluorophore
leakage from the beads and would complicate assay outcomes.
In order to estimate the absolute brightness of a fluorophore
, it is necessary to measure the absolute quantum yield at one wavelength, for example 490 nm.
The fluorescence spectroscopy technique can provide insights into the environment, structure, and dynamics of fluorophore
probes that are either covalently bound or freely doped into the polymer system (1).
The principle of operation is to trap an oxygen-sensitive fluorophore
or pH indicator dye in a sol-gel host matrix that can be applied to the tip of a fibre, an adhesive membrane such as a patch or a flat substrate such as a cuvette.
As AF was very weak in mouse renal tissue using the far-red channel under confocal microscopy (Figure 1), antibody against CD4 tagged with far-red fluorophore
Alexa Fluor 633 was used to detect CD4 antigen in kidney sections.
The evolution of the concentration of a fluorophore
in a bead is described by a partial differential equation for the concentration c as a function of three spatial coordinates and time, c = c(x,y,z,t).
PG1, the mitochondrial membrane potential sensor JC-1, and the mitochondrial redox potential sensor MTroGFPl in living cells to characterize the role of oxidative stress in zinc-induced toxicity.