In "A Perspective of One's Own: Thomas Hardy and the Elusive Sue Bridehead," Elizabeth Langland conscientiously works through a set of formal problems in Hardy's Jude the Obscure (1895)--inconsistencies in focalization
, narratorial interjections, uneven character development--in order to respect one fictional character's right to be understood.
The entertainment lies in the dog's focalization
. Observing everything from a dog's perspective brings to the fore the notion of relativity in a joyful manner.
This step is called "lesion focalization
" which also allows a more conservative and economic treatment 2, 9.
Nor will it do to rescue the communication model by saying that the representation of Benjy's perspective in section one of the novel is not character narration but only a form of focalization
. The language of the section, of course, does convey something of his cognitive limitations, through formulations like "curling flower spaces" and "hitting" used without an object (Faulkner 3), a restricted kind of language that is itself, nonetheless, beyond him and not mimetically his own.
"The author effectively manipulates the narrative as the focalization
moves among the three protagonists, so readers get an illuminating view of what each does an doesn't share with her or his newfound siblings....
The ambivalent definition of the focalizer is especially pronounced during the expression of intimate experiences and cognitive insights when it seems that focalization
is not flowing through the persona, but rather that the focalizer is the narrator himself or that the reader is participating in a sort of two-layered double focalization
'Puzzles and Problems for the Theory of Focalization
,' The Living Handbook of Narratology, <http://www.lhn.uni-hamburg.de/discussion/puzzles-and-problems-theory-focalization> (accessed 24/02/2017).
Childhood is accorded by Zimbabwean writers represented in this book as a central role in social, political, and cultural concerns by being depicted not only as a matter of focalization
and characterization, but as a tool for the construction of a wide range of culturally and historically specific c sets of ideas and philosophies.
Their topics include a tentative roadmap to theorizing narrative (un)reliability, the performative power of unreliable narration and focalization
in drama and theater: conceptualizing the specificity of dramatic unreliability, reality effect and unreliable narration in television news, unreliable narration in law courts, and the struggle for reliable dream reporting and the unreliability of dream reports.