These events were directly associated with increased copy number variations (CNVs) in the plasmepsin system, including the pfpm2 gene (PF3D7_1408000) coding for the food vacuole
enzyme plasmepsin II, which is speculated to be a major piperaquine target.
Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) is an adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette protein located on the parasite's food vacuole
and thus facilitates transport of solutes into the cell.
There are several proteases involved in the degradation of host erythrocyte haemoglobin inside the specialized acidic food vacuole
(pH 5-6) of the parasite.
It is believed that chalcone derivatives that possess antimalarial activity interact with parasite P falciparum enzyme cysteine protease, one of the key enzymes involved in hemoglobin degradation within the acidic food vacuole
of the intraerythrocytic parasite .
Called a "food vacuole
," the pouch is made of an ultra-thin, flexible membrane that, Brandl's findings suggest, may afford important protection to Salmonella.
One group of targets identified by the genome authors were protein-degrading enzymes found in a subcellular digestive component called the food vacuole
. These enzymes are involved in digestion of the blood meal.
A struggle ensues; the actively swimming ciliate is subdued by digestive enzymes leaked into the food vacuole
." This drama, which Sagan monitored in the lab every afternoon and early evening, had the precision and excitement of a lion hunt.
huxleyi DLs have a mildly acidic pH optimum (Steinke et al., 1998) and retain significant activity even at pH 4-6, the probable range during formation of food vacuoles
. DCP rates in high-activity strains could cleave 100% of prey DMSP in a few minutes following ingestion, times typical for food vacuole
formation, and thus produce concentrated acrylate inside protist food vacuoles
at levels (ca.
They do know, however, that these drugs target the parasite's digestive organ, or food vacuole
. Since hemozoin synthesis also occurs in the vacuole, Slater theorizes that the drugs interfere with hemozoin formation, in effect fighting P.
falciparum by inhibiting parasite ATPase activity, which in turn increases the pH of the acidic food vacuole
. There is evidence that quinine also inhibits membrane ATPase in the same way as PPIs (16).