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n. Nautical
1. A rope attached to the lower edge of a sail.
2. A rope, rigged beneath a yard, for sailors to stand on during the reefing or furling of sail.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


1. (Nautical Terms) the part of a boltrope to which the foot of a sail is stitched
2. (Nautical Terms) a rope fixed so as to hang below a yard to serve as a foothold
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014



1. the portion of the boltrope to which the lower edge of a sail is sewn.
2. a rope suspended beneath a yard or spar to give a footing for a person handling sails.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Although the global literature clearly indicates that communities on hard substrates are more vulnerable to bottom trawling (see reviews in Dayton et ah, 1995; Kaiser et ah, 1998; Watling and Norse, 1998; NRC, 2002; Barnes and Thomas, 2005), the lack of impacts to unconsolidated sandy sediments at a depth of 170 m as observed in this study indicates that this type of sediment is much less vulnerable, at least at the level of fishing effort undertaken for this study with a bottom trawl that met the federal requirement of a small footrope (<20 cm in diameter).
Each tow covered 0.37 km at 0.5 m/s, with a standard Southern California Coastal Water Research Project bottom trawl that had a footrope of 5 m and net width of 3.5 m during fishing.
While their mobility may permit avoidance of the doors, it only slightly delayed contact with the sweeps or footrope. Whether a crab passed over or under a trawl component was mostly determined by the relative size of the crab and the component encountered.
The Poly-Nor'eastern bottom-trawl footrope comprised 10-cm disks interspersed with bobbins 36 cm in diameter.
This was done by: 1) replacing the long-link chain running through the rubber disks with 19 mm cable, 2) removing the chain fishing line, and 3) attaching the ground gear directly to the footrope without toggles.
Crabs were more likely to die after encountering the footrope than the sweeps of the trawl, and higher death rates were noted for the side sections of the footrope than for the center footrope section.
The sampling gear is a standard AFSC eastern otter trawl with a 25.3 m headrope and 34.1 m footrope. Otter doors are 1.8 x 2.7 m and weigh about 800 kg each.
The net modifications included replacement of the standard footrope with rockhopper gear, the addition of heavier bridles (1.9 cm), and double meshes in the belly of the net.
The only variables contributing significantly to the models were month, area, depth, year, ln(length), ln(footrope), and In(days fished/trip).
The major modifications to the net were heavier netting material in the belly of the net, a footrope with tire gear through the center, and continuous roller gear through the sweeps.
Most observed vessels utilized a transducer, or net sounder, placed on either the headrope or footrope to determine the depth and opening of the net.