The authors argue that: (1) the interesting notion of a monster is not an operator that shifts some formal parameter, but rather an operator that shifts parameters that play a certain theoretical role; (2) one cannot determine whether a given semantic theory allows monsters simply by looking at the formal semantics
; (3) theories that forbid shifting the formal "context" parameter are perfectly compatible with the existence of monsters (in the interesting sense).
Their topics are meaning in linguistics; meaning, intentionality, and communication; (Frege on) sense and reference; reference: foundational issues; meaning in language use; compositionality; lexical decomposition: foundational issues; meaning in pre-19th-century thought; the emergence of linguistic semantics in the 19th and early 20th centuries; the influence of logic on semantics; formal semantics
and representationalism; varieties of semantic evidence; methods in cross-linguistic semantics; formal methods in semantics; and applying experimental methods in semantics.
Even though what we argue in the sequel can give rise to a critique of formal semantics
, to read our argument in this light would be to miss the point that we want to make here.
However, modeling based on pure graphic notation lacks formal semantics
and quantitative information which results in its inconsistency and inadvertence.
The basic ideas and results of TKR are set forth in numerous publications both in Russian and English, in particular, in [12-30], TKR is the kernel of Integral Formal Semantics
of NL, its basic principles and composition are stated in  and in Chapter 2 of .
In this way, his "non- Aristotelian system," although in a way a misnomer, was a harbinger of "the proper study of mankind." It differs from formal semantics
, from traditional philosophies, and even from logical positivist philosophy (although it shares its ontology and epistemology), to the extent that none of these emphasize sufficiently the vital significance of ontology and epistemology for the human condition.
Hendler, and Pascal Hitzler, discusses the opportunities and challenges related to combining formal semantics
with data analytics approaches.
proposed extended EPC (eEPC) which introduced further elements such as process participants or data and information systems  Kindler  considers the absence of formal semantics
which also allows the exchange of models between tools of different vendors and prevents the use of powerful analytical techniques.
Recanati offers a sophisticated accommodation of both formal semantics
and informal pragmatics in his subtle balance between Indexicalism--the most developed unitary formal semantics--and Meaning Eliminativism--the most developed relativist pragmatics.
So it's self-consciously pitched as a synthesis of the pragmatist tradition of thinking about language with the analytic tradition inspired by the formal semantics
of mathematical, artificial languages.
They cover meaning and reference, truth-theoretic semantics, meaning skepticism, the metaphysics and epistemology of meaning and content, and formal semantics