To this end, MEPs call for: an EU-level action plan to combat bee mortality, breeding programmes to boost resilience to invasive species such as Varroa destructor, the Asian hornet or the American foulbrood
, more research to develop innovative bee drugs and increase their availability, a ban on all pesticides with scientifically proven negative effects on bee health, including neonicotinoids, and safe alternatives for farmers, and advanced warning of crop spraying periods to avoid harming bees.
Certain diseases such as American Foulbrood
, which forms spores, can be introduced into the hive from contaminated honey and pollen.
Other threats to bee colonies include American foulbrood
(which attacks bee larvae), nosema (which invades bees' intestinal tracts), and chalkbrood (which infests bees' guts, causing them to starve).
It should smell like honey and beeswax; if it has a bad odor the hive might have foulbrood
Phenotypic characterization and ERIC-PCR based genotyping of Paenibacillus larvae isolates recovered from American foulbrood
outbreaks in honey bees from Italy.
For example, Minnesota Hygienic Italians and bees with Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH) traits have a high degree of resistance to Varroa mites, American foulbrood
One of them, termed Brown line, was resistant to Bacillus larvae White, a sporulating bacterium that causes American foulbrood
, a terrible disease, which cannot be controlled by chemical products.
Another honey bee pathogen, however, proved tougher to kill: The American foulbrood
bacterium required substantially longer exposure times, along with high humidity levels and an ozone concentration twice as high.
A bacterial disease known as European foulbrood
is of particular concern.
A CASE of American Foulbrood
(AFB), a disease affecting colonies of honeybees, has been found near Turriff.
The bacterial disease European foulbrood
, which is being detected more in this county, may also be linked to colony loss.
Colonies were sampled for pests and parasites and diseases according to OIE methods  and disease diagnosis was carried out according to Shimanuki and Knox  on the colonies and broods to verify the levels of infestation with nosemosis, varroasis, acariosis, chalkbrood and foulbrood