Martin Heidegger noticed the problem of fractionalism
and estrangement on the anthropological level:
He opposed 'fractionalism
', but argued that discussion in the period leading up to the Congress should be completely free, limited only by the framework of Comintern decisions.
still dominates not just our politics, but even our economy and social relations.
Kymlicka is a strong advocate for multicultural policies, and dismisses the perception that multiculturalism leads to fractionalism
or a division:
The creation of a large bridging party, holding 'at least 40 per cent of the vote', was therefore seen as a pre-condition for eliminating the 'fractionalism
' which affected Italian politics (Vassallo, 2007).
Others including poor education based on primary/secondary school enrolment rate, political instability, an under-developed financial sector or shallow financial depth, and a sizeable black market premium, large fiscal deficits, low infrastructure, and ethnic diversity or fractionalism
. Generally, the last set of factors are said to have negative impacts on long- run growth.
Portfolio diversification and the formation of large capitalist consortia unifying financial, productive and commercial circuits in Bolivia unequivocally contradict THM's fractionalism
, as the 'objective' line between money and productive capital is systematically being blurred by cross-shareholding structures.
has thwarted efforts so far to get the polymer industry to cooperate efficiently; the Ohio Polymer Enterprise Development Corp., just three years young, folded in June.
Table 1 Quality of Institutions in Korea, Brazil, and Turkey (1980s) Ethno-linguistic Index of Rule of Fractionalism
Democracy Law Corruption Korea, Republic of 0 5 3 2.375 Brazil 0.05578 5 4 3.875 Turkey 0.16357 3 3 2.875 The Netherlands 0.06344 1 6 6 New Zealand 0.14757 1 6 6 Source: Easterly and Levine (1996).
Western feminists can learn from African women's non-governmental organizations who have consciously overlooked difference and established important coalitions across ethnic, religious, racial and other social divisions in order to build networks for peace and reconciliation in the face of fractionalism
and civil war (Iripp, 2000).
This movement, really prophetic and revolutionary if we think of the state of fractionalism
in which the Protestant world found itself a century ago, has appeared to these Orthodox leaders as a search by Protestants for the true Church.