To find them, look for leaf damage or little spots of frass
and residue from predated seeds) was often observed, the herbivores themselves were only recovered on 4 occasions, 3 times from control plants, and once from plants with ants excluded.
Thalhammer F, Traunmuller F, El Menyawi I, Frass
M, Hollenstein UM, Locker GJ, et al.
Larval tunneling produces frass
that consists of feces and wood fibers like sawdust.
It's all of their frass
, the bug poo, falling through the canopy of the trees," said researcher Patrick James from Universite de Montreal.
While a book about dung may not be everybody's cup of tea, this represents a treasure trove of unusual biological detail that's packed with various details about droppings, from a dung identification guide that covers guano, frass
, and scat to discussions of dung feeders, dung communities, and conflicts among dung harvesters.
According to previous research, Monodontomerus parasitoids appear to be highly attracted to olfactory cues emitted by host frass
and cocoons (Filella et al.
touches the caterpillar's food, it spreads diseases to the caterpillar.
Relative prey abundance using caterpillar frass
(droppings) was calculated.
Also be sure to check for fine sawdust, also known as frass
, on the floor," Berwyn said.
Any cracked or bubbling paint or frass
Furthermore, the frass
produced over 72 h and the initial and final weights of the larvae were also measured.