Most of these individuals are elite males, with some notable exceptions, such as the freedwoman
Epicharis who remained silent under torture during Nero's suppression of a conspiracy, while senators confessed, even implicating others.
[phrase omitted] A quittance for Jamila, the freedwoman
of Umm Hunayda The demonstrative pronoun, which in many cases opens the initial identificatory component, is found already in the bilingual papyrus PERF 558 (dated 22h ) and can be reconstructed at the beginning of the bilingual contract from Nessana (67h [686f]; P.Ness.
Ibis highlights how she was forgetting the words she once knew, and she tells her freedwoman
student that the "words did not matter, only the tunes and the beats," highlighting a loss in meaning of the rites (298).
In the latter, slavery was treated as a "crucible in which the resilience, industry, and ingenuity of the slave was tested and ultimately validated." Such narratives coincided with contemporary uplift ideology by arguing for "the readiness of the freedman and freedwoman
for full participation in the post-Civil War social and economic order" (Andrews 2004).
It reads: "To the spirits of the departed (and to) Regina, his freedwoman
and wife, a Catuvellaunian by tribe, aged 30, Barates of Palmyra (set this up).
The strategic enslavement of family members also informed the decisions of the free Jan Jacob van Paramaribo, who in 1780 arranged for the manumission of Daniel and Esther, probably his children, to whom he bequeathed their own mother, the "negro" girl or maid (neger meyd) Martha, who should remain enslaved for "their use" and to take care of them (tot hun gebruyk en oppassing in slaverney moet blyveri) (3) Francina van Bosse was a freedwoman
who tried to discourage the imposition of subservience onto relatives.
(10.) For instance, Livy (39.9-19), who draws on the tropes and characterizations of New Comedy, cannot bring himself to use the polite term meretrix when referring to the freedwoman
Hispala Faecenia, who saves and protects her lover in the fashion of a New Comic meretrix (particularly the so-called bona meretrix, or "tart with a heart of gold").
Among the witnesses called forth to testify about Maria's activities was Alonso Perez, a Spanish neighbor of Puebla who claimed to have known the freedwoman
for fourteen years.
She escaped to the North in 1842 and became the first freedwoman
to write her own autobiography.
One Louisiana contract, for example, required a freedwoman
to behave "myself as when I was owned by him as a slave." (6) Other landowners used more subtle language in an attempt to reassert the authority they had held as slaveowners.