Individuals with multiple episodes had a higher amplitude of low-frequency waves in the left putamen, left middle frontal gyrus
, and left insula.
Next, they were given "resting state" MRIs which made it possible to analyze the strength of connections within the mirror neuron system in both the left and right hemispheres of their brains; specifically the inferior frontal gyrus
, supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus.
Measurements of the right hemisphere involved only the temporal pole, en-torhinal cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus
Boche and her team quantified Abeta-42--the plaque-forming length of the Abeta peptide--and phosphorylated tau in six brain areas affected by Alzheimer's pathology: the superior and middle temporal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus
, inferior parietal lobule, entorhinal cortex, and subiculum and CA1 regions of the hippocampus.
The brain weighed 1600 g and showed a cortical mass lesion in the left superior frontal gyrus
, 4 cm behind the frontal pole.
The most prominent such sites were the inferior frontal gyrus
, especially during nonsense word rhyming, and Broca's area, a crucial location for speech processing.
Trained participants showed transfer to an untrained inhibition task and brain structural plasticity in right inferior frontal gyrus
, a brain region associated with inhibition of prepotent actions.
Results: DC decreased in the bilateral putamen and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus
in all the patients.
The left inferior frontal gyrus
had reduced brain activation during easier tasks, while the middle frontal gyrus
and the superior frontal gyrus
were affected during more difficult tasks (Diabetes Care 2014 Nov.
50] Studying geriatric patients who had recovered from depression, Yuan and colleagues  found that compared to noncarriers, those who were carriers of the epsilon4 ([epsilon]4) allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene had reduced grey matter volume in the frontal gyrus
and the inferior occipital gyrus.
The meditators, in comparison to those in the control group, also had significant increases in neural activity in areas of the brain important for empathy, including the inferior frontal gyrus
and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex.
That group also had increases in blood flow that were strongest in the inferior frontal gyrus
region (Broca's area), compared with women who did not undergo chemotherapy.