Photos were taken in a natural position standing on both feet, right towards the sagittal plane and facing the frontal plane
. The landmarks were joined on the participant's rights side using double sided tape: the spinous process of C7, the external corner of the eye, the tragus of the ear.
From an existing data base of EOS (EOS Digital Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) frontal plane
radiographs of the right and left lower extremities, 66 adult cases were selected with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) who were candidates for a TKA.
Any frontal plane
curve seen from this view is described as a scoliosis.
Studies have shown that the frontal plane
knee malalignment can significantly affect KAM during walking in healthy populations (Barrios et al., 2009; Stief et al., 2011) and knee Oa patients (Messier et al., 2014; Turcot et al., 2013).
Postural assessment was based on observation of the students in the sagittal and frontal plane
Insertion of the ACL in the frontal plane
was located at 48% [+ or -] 2% from the medial edge of the tibial plateau.
trunk movements have recently garnered increased attention, with evidence suggesting patients with severe medial compartment OA exhibit greater ipsilateral peak trunk lean as opposed to persons with less severity .
Cortical screws were placed in the third hole from the proximal end of the plate and the hole at the distal end of the plate, drawing the tibia to the contoured plate, which improved frontal plane
* On the front frontal plane
are observed: the position of feet and fingers, varus and valgus knees, the rotation of the femur (which is indicated by the position of the kneecap), the symmetry between the triangles of the size (space between arms and body trunk), the wavy aspect of the ribs, the alignment of the head.
These differences resulted from different planes in which the lower limb flexion-extension occurred, i.e., in the sagittal or frontal plane
. This would prevent the forward lean of the trunk by decreasing the hip joint work in the sagittal plane and reduce the knee extensor torque in the jump.
A twin axis goniometer was attached across the lateral aspect of the shoulder joint to measure shoulder movement in the sagittal plane (shoulder flexion-extension) and frontal plane
Trunk kinematics were assessed under three different movement conditions: flexion-extension on the sagittal plane, lateral bending on the frontal plane
, and rotation on the transversal plane.