Research to answer these two simple questions is not abundant, perhaps because lichens have traditionally been divided into "crustose", "foliose" and "fruticose
" growth forms according to their shape and height, a practice that artificially hides a growth continuum (Grube & Hawksworth, 2007; Tehler & Irestedt, 2007).
Some of foliose and fruticose
lichens were identified directly on site.
If they have tube or cup-like structures, grow in branched, bush-like structures, or look like bushy hair or fruit, they are called fruticose
. And lichens that look like clumps of fish scales are called squamulose.
Of the species identified, 47% are crustose, 44% are foliose, and 9% are fruticose
. Many of these species are known to be pollution sensitive and are found there in great abundance.
Anti-inflamatory and antioxidant antivities of Salvia fruticose
: an HPLC determination of phenolic contents.
(Linn.) Farsskal.###Kali Lani###Shrub###Moderate palatable###Camel###Leaf, Shoot
44% that reproduce primarily through sexual ascospores; iii) comprised of 65% crustose taxa, 29% foliose taxa, and 6% fruticose
taxa: iv) one wherein many species arc rare (e.g., 55% of species were collected fewer than three times) and frulicose lichens other than Cladonia were entirely absent; and v) one wherein cyanolichens were poorly represented, comprising only three species.
2700 species grouped in 80 genera) are supposedly around the 10% of total lichen species and they are characterized by having cupulate exciple, foliose, dorsiventral, and rhizinate lower surface, fruticose
to subfruticose threadlike thallus, and a gray, yellow-green, and brown to olive-brown upper surface.
The foliose thallus is represented with 16% (11 species), 10% for fruticose
(8 species) and 4% for composite species (3 species).
These include 116 (57%) microlichens (crustose species, which includes all allied fungi) and 87 (43%) macrolichens (51 foliose and 36 fruticose
In addition to greater Poa glauca canopy cover than the other communities, the Poa sociation was also distinguishable by its greater proportion of Flavocetraria cucullata (curled snow lichen) and Cladonia (fruticose
lichens) squamule cover.
It includes conspicuous stands of large fruticose
Roccella species, several of them formerly harvested for the production of dye.