The trio is honored for work that combines the principles of supersymmetry, which postulates that all fundamental particles
have corresponding, unseen 'partner' particles and Einstein's theory of general relativity, which explains that gravity is the result of the curvature of space-time.
Photons, the fundamental particles
of light, have special properties that make them unique.
Located at the CERN laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, LHC is probing a new frontier in high-energy physics and may reveal the origin of mass of fundamental particles
, the source of the elusive dark matter that fills the universe, and even extra dimensions of space.
The findings may also indicate new physics beyond the Standard Model, which describes how fundamental particles
interact with one another.
Viewing the construction of matter through a different optic than that of the predominant doctrine, the author develops a different physical understanding by means of characteristic length and energy scales than is currently taught in mainstream physics, and ascertains number constants for calculating masses, partial lifetimes, magnetic moments and charge radii of fundamental particles
. The last chapter presents carefully conducted measurements of thin resistive layers whose interpretation is difficult with established models.
She says: "Somehow, NSF-backed scientists managed to rack up more than 200 Nobel Prizes before the agency realized that scientific progress depends on 'diversity.' Those 'un-diverse' scientists discovered the fundamental particles
of matter and unlocked the genetics of viruses." She might have added that there wasn't even diversity among those white Nobel laureates.
QCD, or Quantum Chromodynamics, is the theory for the Strong force that binds together the fundamental particles
, called quarks, to form protons and neutrons, as well as other hadrons.
But its existence is not explained by the Standard Model of physics -- the mainstream theory of the fundamental particles
that make up matter and the forces that govern them.
Talking about his work which brought him the Nobel Prize, he outlined that Neutrinos are fundamental particles
like electrons, which are produced during cosmic interactions in the atmosphere.
But thanks to something called the superposition principle - behavior exhibited by subatomic particles like electrons and photons, the fundamental particles
of light - a quantum bit, or"qubit," can store a 1 and a 0 at the same time.
The intention of this article is an adjustment of the basic claims of our model and an additional verification on fundamental particles
, the cosmic microwave background and the solar system.