Sexual reproduction, or gamogenesis, usually begins towards the end of the active period and leads to hatching of males and gamogenetic females, which results in fertilized resting eggs.
Nevertheless, the mechanisms that induce gamogenetic reproduction in chydorids have not yet been entirely clarified.
Frey (1982) generalized the life cycles of chydorids as predominantly monocyclic with autumnal gamogenetic periods, with some species having variable and insignificant earlier periods of gamogenesis.
Parthenogenetic females, gamogenetic females, and males were identified and marked separately.
The presence of parthenogenesic females and sexual reproduction (males and gamogenetic females) during the open-water season is shown in Fig.
2a) began in mid-September with Alonella excisa males and gamogenetic females, and this species had the longest period of gamogenesis.