Removal of a large foreign body in the rectosigmoid colon by colonoscopy using gastrolith
Early reports claimed that gastrolith
calcium carbonate occurs either as calcite (Travis, 1963b; Ueno, 1980) or in a poorly crystalline state (Travis, 1963c).
It is generally accepted that the hepatopancreatic cells play a considerable role in massive calcium movements between the exoskeleton and the hepatopancreatic and gastrolith
storage sites during premolt and postmolt stages of the molting cycle in crustaceans (Wheatly, 1996, 1997, 1999).
Understanding the mineralization function of well-characterized matrix proteins such as gastrolith
matrix protein (GAMP) from crayfish gastroliths
(31) or orchestin from the calcareous concretions of Orchestia (17) might contribute to a better understanding of how the amorphous calcium carbonate in the concretions forms and is stabilized.
The one grapefruit-sized gastrolith
puzzles Gillette because all the other rocks have far smaller diameters.
This rubber 'slip slop' was found amongst its stomach content remains, along with the usual stone 'gastroliths
' and some fishing net.
Like some modern birds, it may have used gastroliths
, or stomach stones, to break down hard foods like seeds, and it was likely a plant-eater, said Wang.
Fossilized tracks and trails, fossil eggs, fossilized turd or dung and gastroliths
(smooth rounded stones that were swallowed by large planteating dinosaurs to aid digestion) are other, less common, forms of fossils.
This specimen is important because it preserves gastroliths
(Whittle and Onorato 2000; Fedak 2007).
"The discovery of the gastroliths
associated with this plesiosaur specimen were particularly exciting because most plesiosaur gastroliths
are found associated with the long-neck morphotype," Schmeisser explained, adding that "the stones described in our paper are much lighter and smaller than those found in long-neck plesiosaurs."
echinatus, however, this item has a nutritional importance for these organisms, since Palinuridae (spiny lobster) has no calcareous plates (gastroliths
) as found in Nephropidae (clawed lobsters).
The digestive tracts of both plesiosaurs also contained dozens of gastroliths
, stones that paleontologists speculate were used to grind up hard-shelled prey and thereby aid digestion.