Removal of a large foreign body in the rectosigmoid colon by colonoscopy using gastrolith
are formed in a cavity between the columnar epithelium of the gastrolith
disc and the cardiac stomach wall.
17] have shown that gastrolith
length is a linear function of carapace length; and based on their correlations, the gastroliths
retrieved from GCSU 4462 represented a crayfish with a carapace length of 27 to 28 mm.
It is generally accepted that the hepatopancreatic cells play a considerable role in massive calcium movements between the exoskeleton and the hepatopancreatic and gastrolith
storage sites during premolt and postmolt stages of the molting cycle in crustaceans (Wheatly, 1996, 1997, 1999).
Understanding the mineralization function of well-characterized matrix proteins such as gastrolith
matrix protein (GAMP) from crayfish gastroliths
(31) or orchestin from the calcareous concretions of Orchestia (17) might contribute to a better understanding of how the amorphous calcium carbonate in the concretions forms and is stabilized.
He says it therefore appears that as the dinosaur swallowed, its diet of plant material would pass from the crop - where gastroliths
ground it - to a gastrolith
-free stomach where digestive enzymes attacked the food, then into the gizzard for more grinding, and finally into the intestines.
Like some modern birds, it may have used gastroliths
, or stomach stones, to break down hard foods like seeds, and it was likely a plant-eater, said Wang.
Fossilized tracks and trails, fossil eggs, fossilized turd or dung and gastroliths
(smooth rounded stones that were swallowed by large planteating dinosaurs to aid digestion) are other, less common, forms of fossils.
This specimen is important because it preserves gastroliths
(Whittle and Onorato 2000; Fedak 2007).
The discovery of the gastroliths
associated with this plesiosaur specimen were particularly exciting because most plesiosaur gastroliths
are found associated with the long-neck morphotype," Schmeisser explained, adding that "the stones described in our paper are much lighter and smaller than those found in long-neck plesiosaurs.
The digestive tracts of both plesiosaurs also contained dozens of gastroliths
, stones that paleontologists speculate were used to grind up hard-shelled prey and thereby aid digestion.
The only non-molluscan fauna include two small crayfish gastroliths