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also gage  (gāj)
1. A standard dimension, quantity, or capacity, as:
a. The distance between the two rails of a railroad.
b. The distance between two wheels on an axle.
c. The interior diameter of a shotgun barrel as determined by the number of lead balls of a size exactly fitting the barrel that are required to make one pound. Often used in combination: a 12-gauge shotgun.
d. The thickness or diameter of sheet metal, wire, or a similar manufactured material or piece.
e. The fineness of knitted cloth as measured by the number of stitches per a given unit of length.
2. A standard or scale of measurement: The capacity of barrels was measured according to the gauge in use at the time.
3. An instrument for measuring the dimensions, capacity, or amount of something: a pressure gauge; a fuel gauge.
4. A means of estimating or evaluating; a test: a gauge of character.
5. Nautical The position of a vessel in relation to another vessel and the wind.
tr.v. gauged, gaug·ing, gaug·es also gaged or gag·ing or gag·es
1. To measure the dimensions, capacity, proportions, or amount of (something), especially by means of a gauge: gauged the thickness of the metal part.
2. To evaluate or estimate: gauge a person's interest.
3. To adapt or make conform to a specified standard: pressure valves that are gauged to industry requirements.
4. To chip or rub (bricks or stones) to size.
1. Of or relating to a gauge.
2. Physics Invariant under a local transformation.

[Middle English, from Old North French, gauging rod, of Germanic origin.]

gauge′a·ble adj.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
While he gauged the minutes ere he must order Tambi below with the phonograph and records, he noted the bush-girl gazing at him in dumb fear.
The answer is no, new weapons don't need to be gauged. And neither do weapons coming back from overhaul at depot.
All Army units and activated Guard and Reserve units must have all their small arms gauged by direct support within one year of receiving them.