Rats in control group I were given normal saline by oral gavage
along with standard diet throughout the experimental period, whereas rats in the experimental group II received 2.4 g/Kg (low dose) cocoa extract, group III received 4.8g/ Kg (medium dose) cocoa extract 22 while group IV rats received 10g/Kg (high dose) cocoa extract26 daily by oral gavage
along with standard diet throughout the experimental period.
All the animals underwent the same process of familiarizing the gavage
, where in the first week of adaptation the procedure of the gavage
technique containing one ml of water was carried out, aiming to better adapt to the intake of RW (15).
CQ (10 mg/kg) and kaempferol (12,000 mg/kg) were freshly prepared corresponding to the body weight of the experimental mouse in 0.2 ml of distilled water (DW) and orally administered by intragastric gavage
One difference of note is that published studies predominantly use a once daily administration, by either oral gavage
or intraperitoneal injection.
Thirty rats were randomly distributed in 5 groups (n = 6 each): C1 (control 1)--water via gavage
and standard chow diet; C2 (control 2)--water (no gavage
) and standard chow diet; AL (alcohol)--water (no gavage
) and alcohol (40%) via gavage
and standard chow diet; HF (high-fat)--water (no gavage
) and high-fat diet (50%); and HF + AL (alcohol/high-fat)--water (no gavage
), alcohol (40%) via gavage
, and high-fat diet.
The dose of the extracts (0.1 mL) used in the treatment corresponded to 400 mg [kg.sup.-1] administered by gavage
once daily for 15 days.
The mice were randomly allocated to 4 equal groups, each containing 9 mice: I) the DM-treated group, which received 5 mg/kg/d of DM, diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide, for a period of 5 weeks by gavage
; (21) II) the DM plus VOO-treated group, which received VOO (0.4 mL) for 5 weeks after 2 hours of DM gavage
; (22) III) the VOO-treated group, which received VOO (0.4 mL) for 5 weeks by gavage
; and IV) the vehicle group, which received dimethyl sulfoxide for 5 weeks by gavage
This process, called "gavage
", causes extreme and prolonged suffering.
Group A served as control and received 1ml/100gm/day of distilled water and 0.5ml/100gm/day of olive oil for 14 days by oral gavage
. Group B received 1.5mg/100gm/day of CdCl2 dissolved in distilled water and 0.5ml/100gm/day of olive oil for 14 days.
The rat received two treatments, or rather, one was given by gavage
at 1 g [kg.sup.-1] of soluble starch and the other contained the same quantity of starch plus 10 mg [kg.sup.-1] acarbose.
The following routes and doses were used for the medications: BDF: oral gavage
, single administration 0.4mg/kg (median lethal dose, LD50) ; warfarin per os in drinking water 2 mg/kg/day for 5 days ; dabigatran: oral gavage
, single administration 150 mg/kg (LD50) ; rivaroxaban: oral gavage
, single administration 20 mg/kg (LD50) ; heparin: subcutaneous single injection 100 KU/kg (LD50, MSD).
Animals from groups 1 and 2 (normal and hyperuricemic control groups) received only vehicle, by gavage
. Mice from group 3 (positive control) were treated by gavage
with allopurinol (10 mg/kg body weight).