The surgical techniques used are ripping with fingernail or instrument like iris scissors or scalpel, excision of frenulum and closure in horizontal direction, excision of frenulum and genioglossus
and closure with z-plasty, electrocautery, cold surgery and laser surgery.
Several case reports of orofacial tardive dyskinesia, including lingual dyskinesia and lingual protrusion dystonia, have found improvements in hyperkinetic movements following muscular BTA injections, such as in the genioglossus
muscle in the case of tongue involvement.
Human tongue muscles are divided into two main groups: the extrinsic (genioglossus
, styloglossus, and hyoglossus) and the intrinsic (superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, and the vertical and transverse) .
Snoring can be observed depending on the sagging of the muscles of the soft palate, particularly the genioglossus
Tis may impair upper airway dilator volume, genioglossus
muscle function and diaphragmatic functionality (29).
The infuence of lung volume on pharyngeal mechanics, collapsibility and genioglossus
muscle activation during sleep.
It involved the right floor of the mouth and tongue including the genioglossus
, the hyoglossus, the mylohyoid, and the intrinsic muscles of the tongue (Figure 2).
Assessing the utility of paroxetine from a different perspective, Berry's group demonstrated that acute administration of paroxetine 4 hours prior to polysomnography in 8 men with severe OSA increased genioglossus
peak muscle activity without significant effect on AHI or oxygen saturation .
Generally, the extrinsic muscles--including the genioglossus
, the hyoglossus, the styloglossus, and the palatoglossus--tend to move the position of the whole tongue, while the intrinsic muscles change its shape.
advancement and hyoid myotomy: short-term and long-term results," Journal of Laryngology & Otology, vol.
Background: Chronic intermittent hypoxia is the most remarkable feature of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome and it can induce the change of hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) expression and contractile properties in the genioglossus
. To clarify the role of HIF-1a in contractile properties of the genioglossus
, this study generated and compared high-throughput RNA-sequencing data from genioglossus
between HIF-1a conditional knockout (KO) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) mice.