Sublingual localization is considered for cysts between the oral mucosa and geniohyoid
muscles, submental most frequently between geniohyoid
and mylohyoid muscles and outer between mylohyoid muscle and skin [4, 5].
While the EMGs capture the activity of the mylohyoid, geniohyoid
and anterior belly of the digastric muscles, with minimal contribution of the genioglossus one, the tongue pressure measurements on the palate are generated mainly by the genioglossus muscle, with a lower contribution of the suprahyoid ones (23).
The lateral pterygoid is the principal opener muscle and also a major contributor to both protrusion and lateral excursion of the mandible.4 Other mandibular depressor muscles include the geniohyoid
, mylohyoid, and the digastric muscles.
muscle properties and myosin heavy chain composition are altered after short-term intermittent hypoxic exposure.
Several techniques are reported in the literature, which may be divided into intraoral and extraoral techniques depending on which approach is used.7 The extraoral approach is generally preferred in the case of median geniohyoid
or very large sublingual cysts, whereas the intraoral approach is typically used for smaller sublingual cysts.16 In our case due to no clinical signs and symptoms intraorally we surgically excised the mass with extraoral approach.
An MRI showed a 37 x 34 x 42 mm mass in the base of tongue extending to the geniohyoid
muscle as well as the genioglossus muscle that was most concerning for squamous cell carcinoma as shown in Figure 1.
The changes in upper airway diameter during respiration is thought to primarily result from increased activation (during inhalation) and decreased activation (during exhalation) of pharyngeal dilator muscles such as the geniohyoid
, sternohyoid, genioglossus, and stylopharyngeus muscles.
(2) Ectopic thyroid tissue also found in geniohyoid
, mylohyoid (Sublingual thyroid), above hyoid bone (Pre-laryngeal thyroid) rarely mediastinum of pericardial sac, heart, breast, pharynx, esophagus, trachea, lung, duodenum, mesentery of small intestine and adrenal gland.
When applying NMES, mylohyoid, thyrohyoid, suprahyoid, infrahyoid, and geniohyoid
muscle contractions are tried to be activated through the electrodes placed on the submental and laryngeal regions in the anterior neck (1,2,13).
muscles lie deep to both the interhyoideus and intermandibularis, extending rostral from their origin at the posterior margin of the interhyoideus to their midline insertion on the lower jaw.
Numerous previous studies have shown that orthodontic treatments impacting mandibular position can also alter the position of the hyoid, given that it is attached to the mandible via the geniohyoid
, anterior digastric, and mylohyoid muscles [35-37].
The vessel proceeds horizontally between the mylohyoid muscle, externally, and the geniohyoid