After all, it is best to be honest, and if it is not best, it is at least easiest; it involves the fewest embarrassing consequences; and if I confess the spell that the Revenge of Joseph Noirel cast upon me for a time, perhaps I shall be able to whisper the reader behind my hand that I have never yet read the "AEneid" of Virgil; the "Georgics
," yes; but the "AEneid," no.
Looking at seventeenth-century poetry, Restoration drama, eighteenth-century georgic
, and the Romantic novel, as well as practical writings on fruit production and husbandry, Bellamy shows the ways in which the meanings and inflections that accumulated around different kinds of fruit related to contemporary concepts of gender, class, and race.
While the British georgic
is often said to focus the reader's attention on labor, much of this verse concentrates on situating this labor in specific material environments.
LAIRD Christensen rightly calls "The Farm," the ninth Sabbath poem of 1991, "surely one of our greatest georgic
Rosen, Every Species of Hope: Georgics
, Haiku, and Other Poems (Ohio State University Press), contains "Georgic
: On Japanese Beetles" (Volume 87, nos.
Preston turns, finally, to what she calls the 'Scientific Georgic
'--tracts on bees (the subject, of course, of the fourth book of Virgil's Georgics
), on drainage, silk production, and horticulture.
Clare's middle period poetry about work, both human and non-human, is inflected by the georgic
mode, which depicts human agricultural labor as heroically pressing the land into productivity.
The concluding chapter reexamines the georgic
tradition through a pairing of Walden with nineteenth-century agricultural journals, revealing in the mid-nineteenth century a "hyperbolic growth in the amount, quality, and impact of nonofficial, anonymous, collective, and applied environmental writing" and the development of "an aesthetic that draws nourishment from agricultural and scientific practices" (181, emphasis in original).
Morris refines work on pastoral and georgic
forms in the period by examining the specific role the Caribbean plays for writers attempting to bridge the violence and vicissitudes of the preceding century in Scotland, to a 'New Augustan' British imperial culture and plantation economics, through meticulously historicised readings of James Thomson, James Grainger, and fames Ramsay.
The collection opens with an elegant, brief foreword by Timothy Hampton and an informative introduction by the two editors that presents a well-structured justification for the project, evoking the medieval Rota Virgilii and its tripartite distinction between the bucolic, the georgic
, and the epic modes.
"Some of it was too fantastical to be true, but he'd disappear for months working as a steward onboard Cunard liners like Franco nia, Caronia or Georgic
In so doing, she appropriates Virgil's georgic
, infuses it with the ardent enthusiasm of her Homer, and uses it, finally, to critique Romney's Virgil.