1990) between ghost moths and the other herbivores of bush lupine (Maron and Harrison 1997, Maron and Simms 1997) and microgeographic, genetic differences in interaction coefficients between lupine, ghost moths, and the nematode (Whipple 1998).
Could an entomopathogenic nematode protect bush lupine by killing rootfeeding ghost moth caterpillars?
As well, genetic variation of both the lupine and ghost moth caterpillars affects these interactions.
Previous correlations suggested that an entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis hepialus, could indirectly protect bush lupine by killing root-feeding ghost moth caterpillars, which appeared to kill unprotected lupines.
According to Wagner, the conifer swift moth belongs to a primitive family of moths known by two names-swift moths and, more commonly, ghost moths. The name "swift moth" refers to the moths' quickness in flight.
As if to compensate for their frenzied traveling habits, ghost moths fly only during short periods at dawn or dusk, typically for no longer than 30 minutes.
Aside from dazzling entomologists with their speed and strange behavior, several species of ghost moths are familiar as severe pests worldwide.
Ghost moths are univoltine; pupae eclose in late fall, and females broadcast many hundreds to several thousand eggs while flying over patches of lupine bushes during winter and spring nights (Wagner 1986; A.
The main belowground insect herbivore on bush lupine was larvae of the ghost moth (Hepialus californicus).
Belowground ghost moth larvae were killed by spraying lupine trunks and the soil at the base of plants with the insecticide Dursban (DowElanco Corporation, Midland, Michigan), at a concentration of 0.5 mL active ingredient/L water (application rate = 40 mL insecticide/water mixture per plot).