Reis et al., observed that P53 mutation is seen in 23% of gliosarcomas as compared to 11% of primary GBM, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification, is found in only 4% of gliosarcomas compared to 35% of GBM.
Radiologically, Zhang et al., reported gliosarcomas as irregular masses on both CT and MRI, with a smooth external wall, well demarcated from the surrounding brain parenchyma, and significant surrounding oedema.
We compared [pH.sub.e] measured with [TmDOTP.sup.5-] by BIRDS before and after infusion of SPIO-NPs in rats bearing 9L gliosarcomas and RG2 gliomas.
In addition to measurements obtained in the aggressive RG2 glioma, we also acquired [pH.sub.e] maps before and after infusion of SPIO-NPs in rats bearing the less aggressive 9L gliosarcoma (n = 4) using coinfusion of [TmDOTP.sup.5-] and probenecid (Figure 4).
Nowak et al., "Clinical management and survival outcomes of gliosarcomas in the era of multimodality therapy," Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, vol.
Ohgaki, "Genetic profile of gliosarcomas," The American Journal of Pathology, vol.
Groothuis, "Blood flow and blood-to-tissue transport in 9L gliosarcomas
: the role of the brain tumor model in drug delivery research," Journal of Neuro Oncology, vol.
Garcia, "The clinical significance of "adenoid" formations of neoplastic astrocytes, imitating metastatic carcinoma, in gliosarcomas
. a review of five cases," Clinical Neuropathology, vol.
Previous CNS Biopsies.--History of radiation or radiosurgery.--Knowledge of prior radiation therapy or radiosurgery can help in interpreting specimens in which there are large areas of radiation change (eg, coagulative necrosis, gliosis, vascular hyalinization).[7(pp125,126)] Central nervous system tumors noted to arise in a field of prior irradiation include meningiomas, meningeal sarcomas, astrocytomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and gliosarcomas
.[7(pp586-587)] Radiation therapy of diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas has been shown to increase survival.[3,8]
(25,26) Additionally, molecular studies have confirmed the concept of giant cell glioblastoma and gliosarcoma
as distinct variants.
Only 3 distinct morphologic variants of GBM are currently recognized by the current World Health Organization classification scheme, including GBM, giant cell GBM, and gliosarcoma
. Additional variants, some of which have significant morphologic overlap with tumors that have more favorable prognosis and treatment response rates, particularly anaplastic oligodendroglioma, have been described since its publication in 2000 and may be included in the next classification.