While portions of globus pallidus
and pars reticularis of substantia nigra have relatively higher iron content in healthy individuals, patients of PKAN have excessive amounts of iron accumulated in these nuclei.
We measured fMRI BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) activity in thalamus, striatum, globus pallidus
, supplementary motor area (SMA) and the hand area of primary motor cortex (M1) during a finger tapping task (left, right, bimanual).
noncarrier) and IQR increases in annual average PAHs, EC, and N[O.sub.2] concentrations at each child's school on behavioral problem scores and ADHD symptom scores [mean ratios (95% CI), n = 1,589 and n = 1,553 for behavior problem and ADHD symptom scores, respectively]; 12-month trajectories for HRT-SE (inattentiveness) tests and tests of working memory [p (95% CI), n = 1,488 and n = 1,591 for inattentiveness and working memory scores, respectively]; and MRI-based measures of caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus
volumes [p (95% CI), n = 163].
Animal experiments on "extrapyramidal" disorders succeeded in the production of forward bending posture with akinesia by destruction of the bilateral globus pallidus
. (1, 4, 5) Instead, the production of involuntary movements met with serious difficulty, and only "choreoid hyperkinesia" as a model of ballism was succeeded by partial destruction of the contralateral subthalamic nucleus, (6) and athetosis by partial destruction of the anterior and posterior putamen in infant monkeys.
Mass effect is conspicuously absent, and the signal changes closely conform to the anatomic confines of the globus pallidus
, caudate, and putamen.
Bilateral globus pallidus
involvement and thalamus involvement are usually observed.
Performed on a 1.5 T unit, T1WI MRI demonstrated bilateral hyperintense signal in the globus pallidus
and in the substantia nigra, whereas T2WI and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI showed bilateral hyperintense signal in the dentate nucleus, crus cerebri and red nucleus, as well as in the periventricular white matter, corpus callosum and internal capsule (Fig.
As shown in Figure 1, the anatomical locations of the GPi and external globus pallidus
(GPe) were differentiated with the PET/MRI fusion images by referring to major landmarks, including the CAU, PUT, THA, and red nucleus according to an anatomical reference (8).
Ostrem, "Weight change after globus pallidus
internus or subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease and dystonia," Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, vol.
Sera et al., "Manganese deposition in the globus pallidus
in patients with biliary atresia," Transplantation, vol.
The output gate of the information processed in the BG is also limited, and output signals are transmitted by the globus pallidus
in tern us (GPi) and substantia nigra reticularis (SNr).