Specifically, the neurons of the striatum extend to the internal globus pallidus
(direct pathway), the external globus pallidus
(indirect pathway), and the substantia nigra (indirect pathway).
A 74-year-old man with a 9-year history of FTD died, and brain autopsy revealed moderate frontal atrophy, severe ventricular dilatation, severe atrophy of the head of the caudate, and mild atrophy and yellowish discoloration of the globus pallidus
(Figure 12, A).
Among patients stimulated in the globus pallidus
interna, the score improved from 41.
Altered tonic activity of neurons in the globus pallidus
and subthalamic nucleus in the primate in MPTP model of parkinsonism.
1]-hyperintense signals in the globus pallidus
indicating Mn accumulation.
Major Finding: Scores on the motor sub-scale of the UPDRS improved from baseline by similar amounts after 2 years of DBS targeting the globus pallidus
interna (from 42 to 30) or subthalamic nucleus (from 43 to about 32.
1]) in the basal ganglia, and in particular in the ventral globus pallidus
and the substantia nigra pars reticulata.
Increasing evidence suggests that the intense MRI signals in the globus pallidus
of cirrhotic alcoholics are caused by deposits of a paramagnetic substance, probably manganese, in that region (Lockwood et al.
A reduction in GABA and enkephalin input to the external globus pallidus
is thought to cause hyperactivity of the external globus pallidus
and inhibition of the subthalamic nucleus.
Recommended Usage: A programmable, battery-operated pulse generator, placed subcutaneously under the clavicle, is connected to electrodes implanted in the subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus
Subcortical structures (striatum, corpus callosum, globus pallidus
, thalamus, and cingulum) seem to intervene bilaterally invoicing, for only bilateral subcortical lesions lead to lasting loss of voice.
The technique was discovered 4 decades ago, when surgery accidentally damaged the globus pallidus
in a Parkinson's patient--whose motor control subsequently improved.