Previous reports have shown that the massed neurogram activity from cranial nerves (CN) V, VII, IX, and X (trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal
and vagus nerves respectively) and from spinal nerve (SN) II (analogous to CN XII, hypoglossal nerve in mammals) in the isolated tadpole brainstem generate neural bursts that correspond to the lung and gill ventilator activities generated in the intact specimens.
Impulses from the carotid bodies travel via the glossopharyngeal
(9th) cranial nerve to the central respiratory centers in the brain stem to stimulate or suppress breathing as needed.
Other manifestations may include alterations in postural sense, proprioception and vibration in addition to respiratory insufficiency and cardiac/vasomotor dysfunction.[11,23] Dysfunction in the nuclei of cranial nerves IX-XII may also result in problems with swallowing (vague), head and shoulder movement (spinal accessory), tongue movement (hypoglossal), salivation and pharyngeal (glossopharyngeal
Schwannomas developing from the cranial nerves most commonly affect the vestibulocochlear nerve, rarely the glossopharyngeal
, accessory and the hypoglossal nerves.
The gag reflex test measures the activity of the glossopharyngeal
nerve (cranial nerve IX) rather than the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X), which innervates the hypopharynx and larynx.
and trigeminal afferents also reach the solitary nucleus.
Cold temperatures stimulate the orbicularis oris muscle facilitating lip closure and the glossopharyngeal
nerve triggering the pharyngeal swallow.
* A patient with glossopharyngeal
neuralgia uses the internet to communicate with others across the world with the same rare problem.
The nonpharmacological methods include smooth and gentle intubation with a shorter duration of laryngoscopy, use of LMA8 and blocking glossopharyngeal
and superior laryngeal nerves.
Postoperatively, 1 patient developed deficits of the glossopharyngeal
, vagus, and hypoglossal nerves as a result of surgery.
The afferent side of the reflex arises from mechanoreceptors in the larynx and pharynx (8), mediated through the superior laryngeal, glossopharyngeal
and lingual nerves.
Patients may present with symptoms mainly headache, dizziness, earache and are usually due to direct compression of the adjacent nerves, mainly glossopharyngeal
, lower branch of trigeminal and the chorda tympani nerve.