In the avian embryo, the primary gluconeogenic
precursors are amino acids, derived from the amnion and muscles [21,22].
Alterations in expression of gluconeogenic
genes during heat stress and exogenous bovine somatotropin administration.
Accordingly, it is also shown to exhibit insulin secretagogue action with additional activity of inhibiting two key gluconeogenic
enzymes fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase.
During the period of collection, the liver was perfused for 10 min with KH alone (basal perfusion) and then for 50 min with KH containing gluconeogenic
precursors (lactate + glycerol or alanine+ glutamine, 4 mM each); this was the stimulated perfusion.
Dietary proteins contribute little to glucose production, even under optimal gluconeogenic
conditions in healthy humans.
Zha et al., "Bile acids regulate hepatic gluconeogenic
genes and farnesoid X receptor via Gai-protein-coupled receptors and the AKT pathway," The Journal of Lipid Research, vol.
Nonetheless, we cannot rule out the direct action of GCs on gene transactivation of gluconeogenic
enzymes (i.e., phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) that results in augmented hepatic glucose output when upregulated by dexamethasone treatment [36, 45], an action that likely outweighs the bezafibrate benefit.
The combination of over nutrition and relative insulin-like growth factor-1 deficiency may stimulate entry of the BCAAs into the gluconeogenic
program instead of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle (35).
Since 3-HIB can serve as a gluconeogenic
substrate , elevated plasma 3-HIB may have a physiologic function in fasting.
Other amino acids such as alanine, cysteine, and glycine are highly gluconeogenic
and during starvation or energy deprivation can be readily converted to glucose by the body .
Thus, we tested whether ketogenic diet with or without exercise may modulate gluconeogenic
gene programs in livers of diabetic mice.
On other hand, since insulin suppresses gluconeogenic
genes and ALT is a gluconeogenic
enzyme, in the course of diabetes, insulin signaling is impaired and ALT production is increased (Vozarova et al., 2002).