The substrates used here were 2 amines (D-glucosamine, L-glutamine), 6 amino acids (L-arginine, L-asparagine, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, L-lysine, L-serine), 2 carbohydrates (D-glucose, D-mannose), and 15 carboxylic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, gluconic acid
, [Alpha]-ketobutyric acid, [Alpha]-ketoglutaric acid, [Alpha]-ketovaleric acid, DL-malic acid, malonic acid, pantothenic acid, quinic acid, succinic acid, tartaric acid, uric acid, and urocanic acid), [Alpha]-DL-hydroxybutyric acid was excluded from the list of 25 substrates defined by Degens (1998b) because of the unavailability of the compound and poor response in previous work (Degens 1998a, 1998b, 1999).
is a gentler version, less likely to irritate sensitive skin.
The presence of mixed sugars, phosphates, gluconic acid
, delta-gluconolactate, metal salts and organic acids in honey makes it more reactive with good conductance effects.
Thus, glucose oxidase converts glucose and oxygen to hydrogen peroxide and gluconic acid
in the sensor; or alternatively, lactate oxidase converts lactate and oxygen to hydrogen peroxide and pyruvic acid.
Streptomycetes can metabolize a variety of carbohydrates including gluconic acid
. In this work, we address for the first time the genetic basis of the ability of model strain, S.
In this assay glucose is oxidized in the presence of the glucose oxidase catalyst into H2O2 and gluconic acid
. The reaction among gluconic acid
, hydrogen peroxide, a phenolic compound and 4-aminoantipyrine forms a red-violet colored quinoneimine and the absorbance of the quinoneimine chromagen, measured by spectrophotometry, is directly associated with the amount of glucose in the sample.
Some examples of carboxylic acids include acetic acid, formic acid, gluconic acid
, and propionic acid.
The results revealed that there is no only factor in the P-solubilization, instead there are a complex of factors interact with each other in P-solubilization process as the consumption of glucose (converted into gluconic acid
after oxidation and associated with drop in pH), organic and inorganic nitrogen sources (associated with the fall in pH), different growth conditions and inoculum size could affect the metabolism of the strain and change the organic acid secretion pattern and ultimately resulted in variable P-solubilization (7).
It secrets citric acid , oxalic acid  and gluconic acid
 which acts as a chelating agent and makes the heavy metals available to plants.
When the enzymes are exposed to high glucose levels they effectively convert glucose into gluconic acid
that breaks down the modified dextran and releases the insulin.
The recently published review in Science magazine entitled “Green Gold Catalysis” cites a high potential for new processes based on gold nanoparticles for the following large-scale industrial chemicals: gluconic acid
, acetic acid and propylene oxide.