Some of them, associated with immune response, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and glycogenesis
. On the other hand, release of exosomes to the hydatid fluid by protoescolex and germinative layer has been documented (associated virulence factors have been identified in these structures).
Once glucose enters the muscle, it is immediately converted to glucose-6-phosphate catalyzed by HK, and the glucose-6-phosphate is routed into the major pathways of either glycogenesis
as glycogen or glycolysis as power [27,29].
It has been shown that insulin-regulated gene expression contributes to glycolysis, glycogenesis
, lipogenesis (fatty acid biosynthesis), and gluconeogenesis (glucose production) in the liver.
Patients with AI have impaired gluconeogenesis and hepatic glycogenesis
; therefore, hypoglycemia may be associated with ketosis.
When administered to normal or diabetic rats, they reduce hyperglycemia in a dose-dependent fashion and promote muscular glycogenesis
It is considered that pectin induces the protein kinase activity in the brain and pancreas while reducing it in the liver; consequently, insulin release and glycogenesis
are enhanced, while glyconeogenesis is reduced (26).
is suppressed due to a decrease in the low-negative nitrogen balance and in the use of amino acids along with glucose uptake.
The increase in serum cortisol levels during the winter months can be attributed to the increase of catabolic processes such as glycogenesis
, proteolysis and lipolysis (Abilay et al.
Previous studies showed that expression of miR-152-3p was significantly downregulated in the liver of db/db mice and mice fed a high fat diet, and inhibition of miR-152-3p induced impaired glycogenesis
in hepatocytes .
In addition, an enriched environment promoted changes in the astrocytes morphological phenotypes which appeared longer and more ramified [25, 26], stimulating neurogenesis and glycogenesis
, increasing the network of GFAP-immunolabeled cells .
Upregulated the expression of GS for glycogenesis
. Upregulated the GLUT1 and GLUT4 for glucose transport, GK and CS for glucose ACO, CPT1a, and MCAD for [beta]- oxidation in skeletal muscle.
What is more, this element activates also enzymes involved in glycolysis and glycogenesis
as well as lipid metabolism .