These stress hormones in combination with cortisol increase glucose formation in fish by the process of glucogenesis and glycogenolysis
(Iwama et al., 1999) to fulfil the energy required created by the toxicant for the "fight of flight" response, so it can be used as bio-indicator.
Some investigators propose that metabolic conformities caused by HA during exercise are due to a diminishing aerobic metabolic rate (Aoyagi et al., 1994), or diminishing rate of glycogenolysis
(Febbraio et al., 1996).
In case of overproduction of this hormone activates additional metabolic pathways - intensification of gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis
and lipolysis, which in consequence leads to disorders of glycemia, insulin resistance and development of diabetes.
Some of them, associated with immune response, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis
Among these are the pathways of blood glucose regulation: glycogen synthesis, glycogenolysis
(glycogen degradation), and gluconeogenesis (glucose synthesis from non-carbohydrate substrates) (25).
Insulin also stimulates cell growth, differentiation, and promotes the storage of substrates in fat and muscle by stimulating lipogenesis, glycogen, and protein synthesis, and inhibiting lipolysis, glycogenolysis
, and protein breakdown.
(28) It may happen due to gradual increase in plasma glucagon concentrations, which leads the hepatic glycogenolysis
to increase glucose availability in cells in order to keep them fit to meet the increased metabolic demands generated by the exercise, as well as to increased gluconeogenesis, which is one of the processes adopted by the human body to maintain blood glucose levels during fasting.
As tocolytic agents, [beta]-agonists have often been associated with ketoacidosis in diabetic as well as non-diabetic women as they increase lipolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
.  The administration of azithromycin and metronidazole could have further exacerbated the vomiting in our patient.
Adrenaline is known to cause increase in blood glucose level by increasing glycogenolysis
in liver and muscle.
This decreased level of insulin serves to increase hepatic gluconeogenesis and promote glycogenolysis
, thereby providing more glucose as a fuel.
explained that in CE there might be the higher release of catecholamines that promote glycogenolysis
, and hence, at similar RPE, CE resulted in lower fat oxidation and higher HR response than TM exercise.
It may be due to the metabolic disturbances caused by them in one of the pathways or its side effects like inability to use carbohydrates including glycogenolysis
, acidosis and lipolysis (Badr El-Din, 1997).