The significant clinical changes in glucose metabolism in uremic patients are insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, increased glyconeogenesis
, decreased insulin and glucagon disintegration.10
Conversely, studies on some species have reported that liver glycogen deposits try to regulate reduced protein and lipid levels for glyconeogenesis
(Sheridan and Mommsen, 1991; Navarro and GutieA'rrez, 1995; Gillis and Ballantyne, 1996; Furne et al., 2012).
It is considered that pectin induces the protein kinase activity in the brain and pancreas while reducing it in the liver; consequently, insulin release and glycogenesis are enhanced, while glyconeogenesis
is reduced (26).
This need triggers glyconeogenesis
, which causes glucose synthesis from lipids and protein degradation products, and at the same time, causes a rapid transformation of glycogen, which is the storage form of glucose.
Localization and regulation of muscle fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, the key enzyme of glyconeogenesis
. Adv Enzyme Regul 2006;46:51-71.
It is well documented that stress promotes an increase in the synthesis of the glucocorticoid hormone cortisol (Martinez-Porchas, Martinez-Cordova, & Ramos-Enriquez, 2009) and the activation of glycogenolysis and glyconeogenesis
, the two pathways involved in the fight-or-flight response and in the regulation of glucose levels in the blood.
Glucose intolerance due to histone modification encoding the increased glyconeogenesis
and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-1 has been detected in newborn mice fed on a diet which is high in fat (9).
In the rumen, PG is converted to propionic acid (Grummer et al., 1994), then transported to the liver and metabolized into glucose through glyconeogenesis
. PG rapidly supplies energy, this improved the degree of negative energy balance, resulting in decreased body fat catabolism and plasma NEFA levels (Miyoshi et al., 2001).