is the midpoint between the pogonion and the menton.
(Gn)--constructed by bisecting the facial plane and tangent to the lower border of the mandible.
(2) Also the position of gnathion
which is used to form a line with gonion to measure the mandibular plane angle.
Maxillary base length was measured as a linear distance in millimeters from condylion (most superior posterior point on head of mandibular condyle) to point A (deepest midline point on the contour of pre-maxilla between anterior nasal spine and incisor tooth) whereas mandibular base lengths were measured as a linear distance in millimeters from condylion (most superior posterior point on head of mandibular condyle) to gnathion
(centre of inferior point on the mandibular symphysis).
distance from the gnathion
after the aboral edge of the hard palate, CI--thickness of the incisor, IBW--width of the braincase, A--breadth of the upper ramus of the zygomatic process of the maxilla, and B--breadth of the zygomatic arch.
Third, facial axis (Rickett's foramen rotundum to gnathion
) is either copied or changed as expected to behave according to the facial type of the patient, and the treatment mechanics customarily used in such cases.
(17), (18) left and right Zy-Go-Gn angles: left and right gonion angles: formed by the left and right gonion point, bound to the zygion and gnathion
points at each side.
Results: Significant differences among vertical patterns were observed for the 'gnathion
', 'menton', 'stomion' and 'inferior sulcus to H line' when both genders were combined.
Ar, Articulare; Pog, Pogonion; Go, Gonion; Gn, Gnathion
; Co, Condylion; SMIs, skeletal maturation indicators (according to Fishman ).
(most outward point on the profile curvature of the chin).
Distances of the facial width (zygion to zygion), total face height (trichion to gnathion
), short forehead height (trichion to glabella), long forehead height (trichion to nasion), upper face height (trichion to subnasale), morphological face height (nasion to gnathion
), nasal bridge length (nasion to pronasale), nose height (nasion to subnasale), and lower face height (subnasale to gnathion
) were computed in this study [Figure 1].
): A bony point by bisecting the line of angle formed by the facial plane and mandibular plane.