Pasquil stands opposed to Gnatho
, the type of sychophantic flatterer, in Eliot's work.
= Greek, for jaw; ferrum = Greek, for iron, alluding to the consumption of such a dense hardwood as mahogany.
These references come without explanation, and whilst Gnatho
could arguably be English idiom by 1540 (thanks to Thomas Elyot's Pasquil the Playne, printed in 1533), according to the Oxford English Dictionary the term 'Thraso', the braggart from Eunuchus, does not enter the language until the 1560s.
Terentian Phormio is clearly admirable, and Gnatho
too, in his character type.
Probably Menander's Simo made his first entrance from his house on the way to the market-place.(13) Vagueness over the off-stage action has also been noted in connection with other characters attested as Terentian introductions, Charinus and Byrria in the Andria, Thraso, Gnatho
, and Antipho in the Eunuchus,(14) and characters probably introduced by Terence into extra scenes, Antipho in the central section of the Phormio, Parmeno in the finale of the Hecyra.(15) It should be emphasized that to recognize loose ends left by Terence's changes is not to condemn them; it is necessary also to recognize the positive dramatic gains which Terence achieved in return.
The name Gnotho may have been suggested by a reference in the dedication to Prince Henry of the 1612 edition of Chapman's Seaven Bookes of the Iliades of Homere, where mention is made of `Phyloxenus and Gnatho
, that would still emptie their noses in the dishes they loued, that no man might eate but themselues'.(16)
Astylus' parasite, Gnatho
, fell in love with Daphnis but was repulsed.
(145) Another problem occurs: what did Terence really mean when, in his Eunuch, the interlocutor Gnatho
says to Thrason, "I never come to you without departing more learned"?