During pregnancy, women typically use analgesics for short periods, so the researchers wanted to test whether a shorter-term exposure also could induce changes in gonocyte
(2000) The paternal methylation imprint of the mouse H19 locus is acquired in the gonocyte
stage during foetal testis development.
The effect of estrogen on testicular gonocyte
 suggests that the effect of the exposure may delay gonocyte
development, and decrease fetal body weight and testis weight.
We previously showed that expression of the gonocyte
pluripotency marker POU class 5 homeobox 1 (POU5F1 or OCT4) ended earlier in the fetal testes of rats whose dams were exposed to 350 mg/kgperday acetaminophen or 0.8 mg/kgperday indomethacin than in fetal testes from the offspring of unexposed dams (Dean et al.
Analysis of gene expression profiles of microdissected cell populations indicates that testicular carcinoma in situ is an arrested gonocyte
. Cancer Res 69(12):5241-5250, PMID: 19491264, https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-084554.
markers, including OCT3/4, NANOG, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), podoplanin (D2-40), and stem cell factor (SCF), stain IGCNU but not normal, hypertrophic, multinucleated, or reactively enlarged spermatogonia.
We sampled male offspring on E17.5, E21.5, or postnatal day (PND) 4--time points chosen to reflect the period before, during, and after the appearance of DBP-induced MNGs and gonocyte
Fetal mouse phthalate exposure shows that gonocyte
multinucleation is not associated with decreased testicular testosterone.
Human germ cell tumors are considered to have an in utero origin, and androgens are required for progression of the transformed gonocyte
(fetal germ cell) or carcinoma in situ (CIS) to a germ cell tumor in humans.
Determination of gonocyte
, Sertoli, and Leydig cell numbers per testis.