Nonetheless, he recognizes that for many gentlemen, martial culture was a self-conscious expression meant to distinguish the swordsman (the term dates from about 1601) from the "pen-gentleman"--the courtier or gownsman
, whose culture the swordsman deemed feminine.
James Austen argues that such "prejudice" is intensified by the town-gown divisions of university life-"In Oxford the wind always blows from one quarter, gownsman
meet s gownsman
, they strengthen each other in their own line of life, and in the contempt of what is opposite to their own" (142)- and he brings home the callousness to which it leads in a series of chilling anecdotes.