And second, processes of this kind tend to involve a specific type of semantic, morphosyntactic and phonological changes: Loss of lexical in favor of grammatical meaning
(desemanticization), loss of morphosyntactic properties such as loss of word status (decategorialization), and loss of phonetic substance (erosion).
Reports on electro physical phenomena in semiconductor solid solutions, results of innovative approach to the history of Uzbekistan, computer modeling of complex physical process, dialectical interpretation of grammatical meaning
and form were also heard.
In her view, markedness shift is a trigger of grammaticalization: "the markedness shift, when it modifies the grammatical meaning
of a term, thus prompts grammatical shift.
" The grammatical meaning
of ' transgender', therefore, is across or beyond gender.
Words must be given their literal and grammatical meaning
and that words in old statutes were given the meanings they had when the statues were first introduced.
* The Principle of One-Meaning--One-Form (well established in the literature on theoretical morphology and linguistic complexity, also known as the Principle of Transparency, see, for instance, Kusters 2003): (a) Everything else being equal, a grammatical meaning
with n forms is less complex than one with n+1 forms; (b) Everything else being equal, a grammatical form with n meanings is less complex than one with n+1 meanings.
The second of two volumes in the set discusses such aspects as concept structuring systems in language, some universal conceptual categories in human cognition and the elaboration of events, cognitive principles of co-reference in pronouns and point of view, semantic maps and cross-linguistic comparison in the geometry of grammatical meaning
, and "let alone" as a case of regularity and idiomaticity in grammatical constructions.
The last text with comprehension activities (questions followed by four possible answers) forces students to establish the necessary relationships among grammatical form, grammatical meaning
and pragmatic meaning.
Similarly, the developing grammatical meaning
that is seen as causing the reduction of a word can be attributed to the construction of which the word is a part, rather than to the reducing word alone.
The collection of empirical investigations include relativization and systematic vocabulary development in L2 German, grammatical meaning
, higher-order inferential abilities in L2 English, socio-linguistic awareness in L2 French, and assessment of competency in medical interpreters.
The geometry of grammatical meaning
: semantic maps and cross-linguistic comparison.
Language exists for the expression and interpretation of meaning, and that includes grammatical meaning
. Sometimes, we give students simplified 'rules of thumb'.