Spelling difficulties in school-aged girls with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity disorder: behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive, and graphomotor
The VP, which belongs to the sensorimotor domain, was used to assess graphomotor
speed and accuracy.
For instance, the original "Organic Brain Syndrome" classification, as outlined in the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association, was that objective neurological deficits had to be obviously expressed as some abnormal reflex, motor (hemiplegia), sensory (visual field defect), perceptual (hemifield neglect), sensory-perceptual (graphomotor
impairment), and/or language (aphasia) indicator.
found that children with ADHD/DCD performed more poorly on the manual dexterity, had a poorer quality of handwriting, and drew more rapidly and fluently, but less accurately than control on graphomotor
These studies reported that maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower scores for visuospatial and graphomotor
ability (Till et al.
Still unclear, however, is the contribution of non-linguistic graphomotor
speed to the process of taking notes.
Hence, while the ROCF is mainly a visuo-constructive task, with a preponderance on visuoperceptive, visuospatial as well as graphomotor
abilities without time limitation, the Block Design Test on the other hand requires mental rotation as well as geometric fragmentation analysis under time-restriction .
Our next development is a digital maze test designed to measure graphomotor
aspects of executive function, processing speed, spatial reasoning and memory.
This includes students who need to access information from print and who may still benefit from reading and writing instruction, or who may have reached a point of diminished benefit due to difficult ameliorate conditions (i.e., visual perceptual impairments, dyslexia, graphomotor
impairments, and cognitive processing deficits) that affect multiple components within the complex reading and writing processes.
It assesses working memory, associative learning, graphomotor
speed, cognitive speed and visual perception.
Learning to write is a cognitively demanding process that requires graphomotor
skills, linguistic knowledge, and awareness of text production rhetoric (Mayer, 2010).