Phys Org said the astronomers took advantage of a natural phenomenon called a gravitational lens
. Albert Einstein had predicted that with the right alignment, the bending of space-time by a massive object can enlarge and produce numerous images of a distant object.
ALMA was able to observe this object at such tremendous distance with the aid of a gravitational lens
provided by a different galaxy that sits almost exactly along the line of sight between Earth and SPT2319-55.
Kraniotis studied gravitational lensing of KNdS and KNAdS black hole in , where closed form analytic solutions of the null geodesics and the gravitational lens
equations have been obtained versus the Appell-Lauricella generalized hypergeometric functions and the elliptic functions of Weierstrass.
Decades passed before astronomical technology verified that idea: It wasn't until 1979 that astronomers detected a real-life example of a gravitational lens
in the double image of a quasar--side-by-side glimpses of a galaxy's blazing heart, resembling a pair of oncoming headlights.
Among the topics are far-ultraviolet luminosity as a star formation rate tracer, modeling the double source-plane gravitational lens
, the origins of the cosmic millimeter background, constraints on the star-forming interstellar medium in galaxies back to the first billion years of cosmic time, and dark matter annihilation and the cusp problem.
However, this was precisely the observation that would be made if a single gravitational lens
were distorting all of their images.
The amount of image distortion is quantified by comparing the images to those acquired from galaxies outside the effect of the gravitational lens
in the same region of space.
The first such gravitational lens
was discovered by a team led by Jodrell Bank astronomer Dennis Walsh in 1979.
Thomas Collett of the Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation at the University of Portsmouth, used a nearby galaxy as a gravitational lens
to make a precise test of gravity on astronomical length scales.
The pair represents the first clear sign of a gravitational lens
in a binary star.
But, at its great distance, it would be impossible to observe it as an individual star, even with the Hubble, were it not for the gravitational lens
phenomenon," Ismael Perez Fournon, a researcher at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) and the University of La Laguna (ULL), both in Spain, explained in (http://www.iac.es/divulgacion.php?op1=16&id=1370&lang=en) a statement.
As the authors wrote in the January 20,1990, Astrophysical Journal, "A gravitational lens
distorts most background galaxies by stretching [them] along a circle centered on the lens." (See illustration on page 38.) From their observations, the team deduced dark matter's distribution among the two clusters.