Present study suggested a low level of genetic diversity; however, gene flow was higher suggesting low chances of inbreeding between gray langur populations of Pakistan and AJK.
Genetic diversity, Himalayan gray langur, RAPD, Pakistan.
Kashmir gray langur or Himalayan gray langur (Semnopithecus ajax) is an endangered species of old-world monkey fragmentally distributed in different areas of northern Pakistan (Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KP) and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK)) (Roberts, 1997; Minhas et al., 2012).
The study was based upon the hypothesis that different inbreeding populations of the gray langur distributed in Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir are isolated to different degrees from one another.
Clustering of different genotypes from gray langur populations was performed using Euclidean similarity index based on Paired group cluster analysis of binary data (present/absent) produced by different markers in Past (3.16) software (Hammer et al., 2001).
Amplification of RAPD loci exhibited different patterns based on relative frequency (%) of polymorphism in different gray langur populations (Fig.
In the 55-second video, the bus driver from KSRTC's Davanagere division can be seen comfortably seated in the driver's seat with a Gray Langur
is perched on the steering wheel.
Other mammalian elements recorded in the park include Himalayan brown bear (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758), Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus Cuvier, 1823), leopard (Panthera pardus Linnaeus, 1758), red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758), Kashmir musk deer (Moschus cupreus Grubb, 1982), Himalayan serow (Capricornis thar Hodgson, 1831), Kashmir gray langur (Semnopithecus ajax Pocock, 1928), wild pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758), yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula Boddaert, 1785), jungle cat (Felis chaus Schreber, 1777), leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis Kerr, 1792) and Indian porcupine (Hystrix indica Kerr, 1792).
Kashmir gray langur and wild pig had the fewest detections (n = 2 each) and therefore, were not considered for analysis.
Other sympatric mammals such as the "endangered" Kashmir gray langur and wild pig (which reappeared after a long gap of 30 years during the sampling period, Khursheed et al.
Two monkeys to be precise, when a pair of black-footed Gray Langur
primates briefly halted play when they ambled across the playing area.
Beach was one of my teachers at Berkeley during a period in which I observed the social behavior of Indian gray langur