has been discovered as a molecule that targets eIF2[alpha] phosphorylation and leads to the reduction of protein production and thus reduces ER stress.
Several small molecules, such as salubrinal , guanabenz
, and Sephinl , that enhance ISR have shown cytoprotective effects.
There are several compounds grouped in classes that interact directly with components of the ERS (salubrinal, BiP inducer X (BIX), salicylamide analogs, flavonoids, guanabenz
, and STF083010), chemical chaperons (4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO)), chemicals that inhibit protein degradation (Eeyarestatin, MG132, and Bortezomib), compounds with antioxidant activity (Edaravone, dibenzoylmethane derivatives, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)), and drugs controlling calcium signaling (dantrolene and carbazole derivatives) .
In 2009, the sheikh himself was suspended for six months after samples taken from Tahhan, a horse he rode in endurance contests in Bahrain and Dubai, showed traces of the beta blocker guanabenz
and the steroid stanozolol.
The sheikh's trainer, abdullah Bin hizaim, admitted administering Guanabenz
, a drug used to treat high blood pressure in people, and the steroid 16b hydroxy-Stanozol to Tahhan before desert races in Bahrain and dubai, and was given a 12-month suspension.
Some commonly prescribed drugs in this class include alpha methyldopa (Aldomet), clonidine hydrochloride (Catapres), guanabenz
acetate (Wytensin) and guanfacine hydrochloride (Tenex).
JOHN'S WORT Paroxetine Nausea, Lethargy, Incoherence Class IA and III Decreases effectiveness antiarrhythmic agents (precipitating arrhythmias) Cyclosporine Decreases cyclosporine concentration due to increased clearance (transplant rejection) Theophylline Decreases serum concentration YOHIMBINE Clonidine, Guanabenz
Decreases blood pressure reduction effect of centrally active agents CNS stimulants (e.g., Risk of hypertensive crisis amphetamines) due to its monoamine oxidase inhibitor activity ACE inhibitors Decreases effectiveness of ACE inhibitors.