The testis was delivered and the gubernaculum
testis was clamped or cut off.
present, the same size as the spicule and polymorphic.
The hypo-echoic appearance of each scrotal compartment relates to the presence of the adjacent gubernaculum
In the closed ring variant, the processus vaginalis does not develop, the gubernaculum
is absent, and the internal ring is closed.
Embryologically, it is the female equivalent of the gubernaculum
The following morphometric data were analyzed: L, total body length; MBW, maximum body width; ABW, analbody width; VBW, vulval-body width; EP, distance from anterior end to excretory pore; ES, distance from anterior end to base of esophagus; GuL, gubernaculum
length; GuW, gubernaculum
width; NR, nerve-ring position; STL, stoma length; STW, stoma width; SpL, spicule length; SpW, spicule width; TL, tail length, TRL, testis-reflection length; D, EP/ ES; E, EP/TL; GS, GuL/SpL; V%, (L/length to vagina) x 100.
(2003) suggest length in IJs, and spicule and gubernaculum
length and shape in males as ones that should be considered.
The left testes in the scrotal space, together with the tunica vaginalis and spermatic cord, were separated from the gubernaculum
with blunt dissection and removed/ exposed.
Two possible mechanisms may underlie the association between exposure to specific PBDEs and cryptorchidism: a) competition at the androgen receptor level, to block the effects of endogenous androgens (e.g., in the gubernaculum
muscle or inguinoscrotal fat pad) (Barthold et al.
Neonatal torsion is the result of inadequate fixation of the gubernaculum
, the structure that leads the testis into the scrotum during testicular descent and anchors the testis to the inferior aspect of the scrotum (Basta et al., 2015; Sharp et al., 2013).
(1) However, in the case of yolk sac tumor primary in the vulva, misplaced/aberrant germ cell migration along the gubernaculum
is the leading hypothesis.