Briefly, the current recommendations entail that the patient should abstain from foods and beverages for at least 6-12 hours before testing (8), in order to limit the unwanted effects of food ingestion and haemodilution
on a number of laboratory analytes (9-11).
Secondly, all patients had suffered multiple injuries and had typically received transfusion of fluids not containing Mg, causing haemodilution
, and would typically have high serum catecholamine levels, which have been shown to cause Mg shift to the intracellular space.
The use of this formula has not been well studied in the pregnant population and guidelines for its use exclude pregnant women,  because creatinine falls in pregnancy owing to a pregnancy-induced increase in GFR and haemodilution
from plasma expansion.
Cardiovascular surgeons and related medical specialists describe minimized versions of bypassing the heart and lungs during cardiac surgery, which is not yet widely practiced, but shows promise for reducing blood loss, blood transfusions, haemodilution
, and stroke.
Specific physiological changes in the haematological system occur in pregnancy, including haemodilution
(there is an increase in plasma volume by 45-50% that reaches a maximum at about 34 weeks' gestation and exceeds the 18-30% increase in the red cell mass).
2002) A trial distension, haemodilution
, and acute control of renin release during water immersion in humans.
This is referred to as perioperative acute haemodilution
This could be because of haemodilution
which occurs in pregnancy and hence percentages would be more useful indicator of immune function in pregnant women also.
In vivo effect of haemodilution
with saline on coagulation: a randomized controlled trial.
Increased blood water concentration and viscosity through consumption of wet forages or as a response to high temperatures during the hot-wet season, particularly in the sour rangeland where rainfall is high, lead to haemodilution
, which in turn reduces concentration of blood protein metabolites (Akerejola et al.
These include carbogen (combination of 95% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide) to improve blood supply to the cochlea, vasodilators, haemodilution
, anticoagulants, and homoeopathic and herbal remedies.
Known PPAR-alpha (creatinine increase) and gamma-related effects (edema, haemodilution
, and weight gain) were seen in a dose-dependent manner of which the incidence of edema for the 150 microgram aleglitazar dose was similar to placebo and numerically less than with pioglitazone, and body weight gain was numerically less than with pioglitazone.