) protruding volarly into the hypothenar eminence.
Pain in the soft palate due to an elongated pterygoid hamulus
was first termed by Gores .
The female flower's perianth was persistent and stuck to the surface of the seed--not unlike hops (Hamulus
As we used a life-sized maxillary dental cast, all the training processes were carried out with reliable anatomical relationships and surgical movements (i.e., incision, dissection, flaps, and sutures), and individuals can be trained using important referential anatomical points (e.g., Ernst's space, pterygoid hamulus
, palatine canals, and palatine vessel localizations).
The gestational exposure to metolachlor increased (p < 0.05) the incidence of fetuses with absent xiphoid process (TA group), incomplete ossification of sternebra (TB and TC groups), increased distance between hamulus
and basisphenoid, absent sternebrae and incomplete ossification of xiphoid process (TC group) (Table 2).
The lower end of the posterior border of the medial plate appears to be con- tinued as a slender, curved or hook-like process termed as pterygoid hamulus
(hamular process, pterygoideus hamulus
, pterygoid hooklet).7
Carpal tunnel is a covered canal comprised of scaphoid bone tubercle and trapezium edge at lateral, hamate bone hamulus
and pisiform bone at medial.
Chronic traumas to the hypothenar eminence in professionally predisposed individuals (drivers, mechanics, bricklayers, carpenters), or those engaged in a number of sports (such as golf, tennis, extreme martial arts, baseball in Anglo-Saxon countries) cause chronic pressure of the ulnar artery against the hamulus
(uncinate process) of the hamate bone [2-4].
It was observed that the medial part originated from the hamulus
of the pterygoid bone and from the margo liber of the palatine bone and terminated in the angle of the mandible.
Other common causes ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's Canal include but are not limited to the presence of ganglion cysts, lipomas, anomalous muscles, or a hypoplastic hamulus
. (2,3) As the ulnar nerve courses through Guyon's canal, it divides into two terminal branches, the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve and the superficial ulnar nerve (Figure 1).
These structures included calcifications of arteries, lymph nodes and salivary glands, phleboliths, an elongated styloid process, a large maxillary tuberosity, a prominent hamulus
of the pterygoid process, foreign bodies, bone islands in the mandibular rami, and a displaced tooth [4, 6, 7, 10, 13, 17, 18].
Anatomical structures include a prominent pterygoid hamulus
, large maxillary tuberosity, displaced third molar tooth or an elongated styloid process due to calcification of the stylohyoid ligament (Eagle's syndrome) (3).