Hymenoptera have haplodiploid
sex determination, meaning that unfertilized eggs become males (haploid) and fertilized eggs become females (diploid).
Evolutionary biology of the Oxyurida (Nematoda): biofacies of a haplodiploid
Some of the currently known host-reproductive manipulations include male killing, induction of parthenogenesis, feminization of genetic males, forced production of haploid individuals in haplodiploid
systems, and cytoplasmic incompatibility (Werren 1997).
Wolbachia induced female parthenogenesis is less common and has only been documented in haplodiploid
species such as thrips (Thysanoptera), mites (Acari) andwasps (Hymenoptera) .
impaternata and report evidence that impaternata arguably has eccentric reproductive biology due to the conjunction of gynogenesis and haplodiploid
sex determination in its life cycle.
MATESOFT: a program for deducing parental genotypes and estimating mating system statistics in haplodiploid
Hymenoptera are haplodiploid
and females can determine the sex of each offspring by controlling the fertilization of the eggs (Flanders, 1965).
Cytonuclear theory for haplodiploid
species and x-linked genes.
If Blochmannia is similarly involved in manipulating ant reproduction and sex ratios toward females, it would in part share this "preference" with colony workers, who are also favored to manipulate sex ratios owing to relatedness asymmetries under haplodiploid
Eusociality is relatively rare in nature, and the traditional view has been that a haplodiploid
reproductive pattern provides a genetic facilitator.
Male-killing bacteria have been observed in male heterogametic, female heterogametic, and haplodiploid