Malekan, "Synthesis and characterization of nanowires hausmannite
(Mn3O4) by solid-state thermal decomposition," International Journal of Nano Dimension, vol.
It can be seen from Figure 11 that the main compositions of the hollow-structured oxygen candle with r = 9 mm after combustion are halite (sodium chloride), hausmannite
(manganese tetroxide), manganosite (manganese oxide), and cobalt (II, III) oxide.
Supersaturated minerals Mineral phase Mineral formula Albite NaAl[Si.sub.3][O.sub.8] Anhydrite CaS[O.sub.4] Anorthite Ca[Al.sub.2][Si.sub.2][O.sub.8] Barite BaS[O.sub.4] Ca-Montmorillonite [Ca.sub.0.165][Al.sub.2.33] [Si.sub.3.67][O.sub.10] [(OH).sub.2] Celestite SrS[O.sub.4] Chlorite (14A) [Mg.sub.5][Al.sub.2][Si.sub.3] [O.sub.10][(OH).sub.8] Chrysotile [Mg.sub.3][Si.sub.2][O.sub.5] [(OH).sub.4] Gypsum CaS[O.sub.4]:2[H.sub.2]O Hausmannite
[Mn.sub.3][O.sub.4] Pyrochroite Mn[(OH).sub.2] Sepiolite [Mg.sub.2][Si.sub.3][O.sub.75] OH:3[H.sub.2]O Sepiolite(d) [Mg.sub.2][Si.sub.3][O.sub.75] OH:3[H.sub.2]O Talc [Mg.sub.3][Si.sub.4][O.sub.10] [(OH).sub.2] 2P in equ.
Important minerals of manganese are pyrolusite manganite and hausmannite
(Roberts et al.
Sonawane et al., "Nanosize [Mn.sub.3][O.sub.4] (Hausmannite
) by microwave irradiation method," Materials Research Bulletin, vol.
From the XRD pattern of [Mn.sub.3][O.sub.4] nanoparticles, the peaks of 18.07[degrees], 28.92[degrees], 31.07[degrees], 32.32[degrees], 36.07[degrees], 38.12[degrees], 44.47[degrees], 49.92[degrees], 50.97[degrees], 53.92[degrees], 53.97[degrees], 56.12[degrees], 58.47[degrees], 59.82[degrees]' and 72.74[degrees] are in good accordance with the standard values of tetragonal hausmannite
(JCPDS 240734) .
Ilfeld is also the type locality for another manganese oxide: hausmannite
Generally, the equilibria of Mn[O.sub.2] (pyrolusite), [Mn.sub.2][O.sub.3] (bixbyite), [Mn.sub.3][O.sub.4] (hausmannite
), MnC[O.sub.3] (rhodochrosite), and Mn[(OH).sub.2] (pyrochroite) with [Mn.sup.2+] are the dominant Mn systems in soil (Gotoh and Patrick 1972).
2) at Jordan Mountain contains manganite intergrown with pyrolusite, and reduced amounts of hausmannite
and psilomelane (Rose and Johnson 1990; Merlini 1998).
Calcite (CaC|O.sub.3~); ferric hydroxide (FeO|H.sub.3~), magnetite (|Fe.sub.3~|O.sub.4~); siderite (FeC|O.sub.3~); hausmannite
(|Mn.sub.3~|O.sub.4~); copper hydroxide (CuO|H.sub.2~); and manganese hydroxide (MnO|H.sub.2~) were all at least tentatively identified in the 39 waters sampled.|9~
Among several possibilities (e.g., hausmannite
, manganite, and pyrolusite) birnessite and feitknechtite forms are more likely to be formed.
From the above results, we assume that some processes occur during cycling in the potential regions around 0 V and 1V, namely, dissolution of Mn[O.sub.2] nanoflowers, coalescence, and upward drag of the oxide forming a thicklayer of material on top of the CNTs, and morphological modification of the nanoflowers to a needle-like structure that corresponds to hausmannite