IH molar heat of vaporization
To calculate the latent heat of vaporization
of the water of the product (L) for each condition of hygroscopic equilibrium moisture content of the seeds and for each temperature studied, Eq.
The increase in the CR , increase in the time available for the fuel to combust in the precombustion phase, and the higher IAT enhanced this higher thermal energy release of D45E45B10 even though the cooling was created by the higher heat of vaporization
of higher ethanol content.
where [DELTA][T.sub.sat] is the wall superheat (=[T.sub.s] - [T.sub.sat]), [sigma] is the surface tension of bulk liquid at saturation, [T.sub.l] is the bulk liquid temperature, [v.sub.lv] is the specific volume difference between vapor and liquid (=[v.sub.v] - [v.sub.l]), [L.sub.lv] is the latent heat of vaporization
, and [R.sub.c] is the radius of liquid/vapor interface curvature in a cavity.
where [e.sub.s] is the saturation vapor pressure (Pa), [e.sub.0] is the vapor pressure at the triple point of water (611.12 Pa), [l.sub.[upsilon]] is the latent heat of vaporization
(equal to 2.5008 x [10.sup.6] J [kg.sup.-1] at 0[degrees]C, decreasing by about 10% as temperature increases to 100[degrees]C), [R.sub.[upsilon]] is the individual gas constant for vapor (461.2 J [kg.sup.-1] [K.sup.-1]), [T.sub.0] is the temperature at the triple point (273.16 K), and T is the temperature (K) (Miller 2015).
Thus for this study, both single- and multi-component E10 Gasoline surrogates are used based upon the three important properties: fuel density, latent heat of vaporization
where [r.sub.d]--latent heat of vaporization
at condensation temperature.
A comparison of the heat of vaporization
values obtained (for characteristic values see column 5, Table) with those of pure compounds at the same temperatures (from ) suggests that somewhat lower molecular weight values should have been used in the calculations.
Bi-phase or phase-transition heat spreaders and heat pipes, commonly found in laptop computers and other highly dense electronic assemblies, take advantage of the large heat of vaporization
exhibited by readily available liquids.
Refrigerant selection is based on the cooling requirements and the latent heat of vaporization
of refrigerant itself.
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