In females, L4 (left arm 4 length) and R4 (right arm 4 length) were most frequently lost; in males, L2 and R3 were most frequently lost while L4 (hectocotylus
) and R4 were least frequently missing (Fig.
Length of modified portion of hectocotylus
less than entire arm length; proximal portion not modified; hectocotylized arm slightly elongate.
The occurrence of this species in the southeastern Indian Ocean was also confirmed recently, based on molecular markers and morphometric analyses, although some parameters were distinct from those presented by European specimens, such as a narrower head, smaller funnel, and larger number of suckers on the hectocotylus
(Guerra et al.
The squids for which mating has been observed use a hectocotylus
, a modified arm, for the transfer of sperm packets called spermatophores.
"Spermatophores are either transferred to the female by the male's hectocotylus
, a specialised arm, or by a long penis, which is present in species that lack hectocotyli," (http://www.biolbull.org/content/212/3/177.short) explained the Biological Bulletin .
Reuben's former name was "Ruby." When he arrived at Hatfield he had yet to develop his hectocotylus
, a modified tentacle that male octopuses use to deliver sperm to their mates.
Whatever the target's gender, a male octopus placed its specialized sperm-transfer appendage, the hectocotylus
, into the main body cavity of the other octopus.
A generic revision of the family Loliginidae (Cephalopoda: Myopsida) based primarily on the comparative morphology of the hectocotylus
The presence or absence of bundles of spermatophores attached to the gills or inner mantle surface for females, and the hectocotylus
length (in millimeters) and quantity of spermatophores (absence, few, many) in the Needham sac were recorded for males.
Van Heukelem (1983) defined the probable onset of maturity in males as the time when the presence of a hectocotylus
(copulating arm) was observed, at an age of 4 months after hatching, when the smallest octopus weighed 10 g BW and the largest weighed 53 g of BW.
diomedeae are modified, the hectocotylus
is modified along the entire arm; L.
Spermatophores are either transferred to the female by the male's hectocotylus
, a specialized arm, or by a long penis, which is present in species that lack hectocotyli (2).