solar scientists have some sense of what's happening inside the sun, which they believe to be made up of granules and super-granules of moving solar material.
studies have built up a certain picture of the solar interior, including such details as the depth of the convection zone.
This conclusion, has been reached by a virtual who's who of authority in helioseismology
is computationally intensive, regular monitoring of the whole Sun is not yet possible-"we don't have enough CPU cycles," says Ilonidis-but he believes it is just a matter of time before refinements in their algorithm allow routine detection of hidden sunspots.
It presents 90 papers within sections on Hinode perspectives on coronal/chromospheric heating; bringing modeling and observations together; solar magnetic activity; perspectives on the physics of coronal loops; past, present, and future collaborative observational/theory programs; sunspot structure and dynamics; sources of the solar wind and coronal mass ejection; local helioseismology
with Hinode; and flare physics.
They see a few sunspots whose latitudes and magnetic fields are consistent with Cycle 24, and helioseismology
studies of the solar interior reveal gas flows that are following the same pattern as the early part of Cycle 23.
Along these lines, it is concerning that the Sun can be studied using coronal helioseismology
[48-51] which suggests a twenty-ninth line of evidence that it is comprised of condensed matter.
International contributors from Cuba to Kazakhstan and most parts in between provide essays on topics such as solar filaments and their eruptions, the time-distance helioseismology
of sunspots, some peculiarities of research into multi-scale ionospheric irregularities by radio methods, solar type IV bursts at frequencies 10-30 MHZ, and a numerical study of formation and propagation of giant electric jets between a thundercloud and the lower ionosphere.
This subsurface flow has been verified with helioseismology
, which tracks sound waves reverberating inside the Sun much as ultrasound allows doctors to see inside a patient.
Leibacher, director of the NSO and an early practitioner of helioseismology
The technique, says Leibacher, may help researchers probe smaller regions of the sun, perhaps illuminating the mysterious subsolarian processes that generate sunspots.
The solar chromosphere is probably the least understood part of the Sun, even compared to the solar interior on which helioseismology
has focused during last decades" .
General topics include helioseismology
and abundances, star formation from cores to disks, characteristics of brown dwarfs, solar and stellar magnetic fields, stellar evolutionary models, extrasolar planets, and stellar winds and spins.