The virus that causes canine flu has been classified as H3N8 and H3N2, based on the amino acid composition of the hemaglutinin
and neuraminidase glycoproteins in the lipid outer layer of the capsid, according to (https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Reference/Pages/Canine-Influenza-Backgrounder.aspx) American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA).
Lufkin, "Endogenous tagging of the murine transcription factor Sox5 with hemaglutinin
for functional studies," Transgenic Research, vol.
All types of hemagglutinins and neuraminidases are found in poultry, whereas hemaglutinin
type 1, 2, 3 and 5, 7 and 9 (in recent years), neuraminidase type 1 and 2 have been found in humans in seasonal influenza, epidemics and pandemics (2).
They also appear to be free of other anti-nutritional factors such as lecithin, antitrypsin and hemaglutinin
(Guillaume et al., 1987).
The putative neuraminyllactose-binding hemaglutinin
HpaA of Helicobacter pylori CCUG 17874 is a lipoprotein.
Effect of extraction of a hemaglutinin
on the nutritive value of Amaranthus leucocarpus seeds.
The B viruses are relatively antigenically stable compared to the A viruses, which are characterized by frequent changes in two dominant antigenic proteins, Hemaglutinin
(H) and Neuraminidase (N).
In addition to hemolysis, bacterial pathogenic factors such as enterotoxin, protease and hemaglutinin
excretions have been reported for aquatic organisms (Inamura et al.
The main reason the current seasonal vaccine is so strain-specific is that the antibodies it induces are targeted at the globular head of the hemaglutinin
(HA) molecule on the surface of the influenza virus.
Influenza A viruses, by far the most common to cause illness in humans, are categorized further based on surface proteins called antigens, known as hemaglutinin
(H) and neuraminidase (N).
Firstly, there are several anti-nutrition elements in full fat or dehulled soybean meal such as hemaglutinin
, goitrogen and protease inhibitor that could inhibit the activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin (Dabrowski and Kozak, 1979).