In rare cases, RP abscess may occur due to lymphatic spread to a persistent RP lymph node or hematogenous
spread from pulmonary tuberculosis (7).
In this report, we present a rare case of rectum cancer with synchronous isolated left external iliac lymph node metastases with invasion of external iliac artery and ureter, with neither regional lymph node metastasis nor distant hematogenous
metastasis, for whom a potentially curative operation including distant metastatic lymph node dissection and arterial reconstruction was performed.
The exact mechanisms of cutaneous metastasis are still unknown, although several probable ways have been discussed, including direct extension, hematogenous
or lymphatic spread, or spread along the ligaments of embryonic origin and implantation of tumor cells (9).
Because of rare hematogenous
metastasis of AF, the pulmonary metastasis of thyroid neoplasm was not considered first especially when pathological manifestation had been confirmed as PSH in nodule in left lung.
Dissemination to the central nervous system (CNS) occurs by hematogenous
spread, with invasion of arterioles and capillaries, leading to inflammation and rupture of the blood-brain barrier.
metastasis to the thyroid gland mostly develops in patients with breast, kidney, and lung cancers; malignant melanoma; and common diseases (1-3).
Dissemination of the bacteria to the pericardium typically occurs via 4 major mechanisms: (1) direct pulmonary extension such as streptococcal pneumonia/pharyngitis infection 20-25%; (2) hematogenous
spread 22-29%; (3) perforating injury or surgery 24-29%; and (4) myocardial abscess and/or endocarditis in 14-22% [2, 3].
Lemierre illustrated the progression of the disease from a focal suppurative peritonsillar infection to a local septic thrombophlebitis with hematogenous
progression to and distant septic emboli .
Septic arthritis caused by this organism was reported to occur as a complication of hematogenous
seeding of the sacroiliac joint in patients with infective endocarditis .
Early diagnosis of metastatic disease is crucial for staging and treatment planning with common sites of extrathoracic metastases including the adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bone via hematogenous
henselae can affect almost every organ system after hematogenous
, lymphatic, or contiguous spread.
Gastric cancer mainly spreads via lymphatic and hematogenous